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Standardising milk for cheese manufacture

Printed From: Dairy Science and Food Technology
Category: Cheese yield
Forum Name: Cheese yield
Forum Description: Discussion of cheese yield
URL: https://www.dairyscience.info/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=126
Printed Date: 16 May 2021 at 3:43am
Software Version: Web Wiz Forums 12.03 - http://www.webwizforums.com


Topic: Standardising milk for cheese manufacture
Posted By: Guests
Subject: Standardising milk for cheese manufacture
Date Posted: 22 Mar 2010 at 10:33pm
Found your site today! Have reached end of my tether, I can't don't understand how to use Pearson's square or rectangle to standardise milk for yogurt or cheese making-and yes-that is my job!

Can you help me please? What about on eof your calculators?




Replies:
Posted By: Guests
Date Posted: 22 Mar 2010 at 10:36pm
Hmmm! Academics have problems with providing calculators! Enough said?

There are several good textbooks that explain how to use Pearson's Square e.g. Cheesemaking Practice by Scott.

I seem to recall seeing some examples of standardisation calculations on the University of Guelph Cheese site-see the links section of this site or go directly to 
https://www.uoguelph.ca/foodscience/book-page/ice-cream-ebook

I have just finished my first ASP-based calculator-thanks to Dr Raymond Martin for fixing my ASP code-and I may put it on the site if there is sufficient demand.

If you think this calculator would generally be useful please place your comments on the forum rather than send me E-mails.

Jennifer if things are really bad send me an E-mail and I will give you a link to the calculator.


Posted By: Guests
Date Posted: 22 Mar 2010 at 10:37pm
The calculator has been added.


Posted By: Guests
Date Posted: 22 Mar 2010 at 10:37pm
Could you please explain me the role of ultrafiltration of milk in standardisation of milk for cheese making? How effectively can it be used practically in a cheese plant situation? Merits and demerits of UF of milk for cheese making?


Posted By: Guests
Date Posted: 22 Mar 2010 at 10:37pm
Good evening.

Brief response limited to question on standardisation.

UF can be used in standardisation in several ways. A particularly useful application is in the manufacture of high-casein skim milk or high-casein reduced fat milk. These 'milks' can be used to adjust the casein to fat ratio of whole milk.

Generally it is casein rather than fat that is limiting in milk for cheese manufacture. UF treatment rather than the addition of low-heat SMP may be a more cost-effective option.

Running costs of UF plants can be expensive. Cost along with hygiene considerations need to be considered when assessing economic viability of UF for standardisation.

Hopefully others will respond.


Posted By: Guests
Date Posted: 22 Mar 2010 at 10:38pm
Thanks for your reply. Can I please have some more references on UF applications for standardisation of milk for cheese making. At present I am working on UF plant for milk standardisation for cheese making therefore I would like to go in detail about the subject. I would be grateful, if you can e-mail the articles to me.

Thanks.

Regards.



Posted By: Guests
Date Posted: 22 Mar 2010 at 10:38pm
I will try to find a few useful references. Expect a response in around 1 week, busy at present.

These will be posted on the forum.



Posted By: Guests
Date Posted: 22 Mar 2010 at 10:39pm
UF of milk for protein standardisation of cheese milk has been used over the last app 10 years, mostly in Australia, New Zealand, France and Denmark and new plants are now being installed around europe.
The plants are used widely on cheddar chees, semi soft cheeses and soft cheese. The first plant were run hot to minimize installation cost but there will be to many problems with bacteriologocal problems and the plants will only run 10 hours between cleanings. Running at low temperature app 4-5 degC with raw milk can run for 20 hours between cleanings and with no bacteriological problems at all.

The advantages are:

The same amount of cheese per vat/batch year round
The same recept all the time no changes because of changes in the milk mass balance.
Significantly lower rennet consumption.
Higher yields
The same plant up to the cheese tank will be able to take a higher output - up tp 20% the downstream cheese equipment will have to be able to handle it or extended.




Posted By: Guests
Date Posted: 22 Mar 2010 at 10:39pm
What is the effect on the cheese quality if the casien:fat ratio is not standardised? What gives a poor/soft body in cheese even though the moisture is in the region of 36%/37%? The above mentioned? Cheers Robert


Posted By: Guests
Date Posted: 22 Mar 2010 at 10:39pm
Sorry for the delay in responding.

Here is a very brief and, simple response.

If the ratio of fat to casein in milk for cheese manufacture is out of balance, then the cheese produced will be either too soft or too hard.

There are simple (and complex models) that can be used to illustrate this and I intend to include these in the website when I get time.

Research has shown that milk with casein to fat ratio of around 0.68-0.72:1 gives a good body; this is equivalent to a protein to fat ratio of around 0.9 -1: 1. If the casein component is increased, keeping the fat constant, the cheese becomes harder. Similarly if the casein is kept constant and the fat is increased the body becomes softer.

The above findings form a major part of the rationale for standardising milk to target casein to fat ratio, the target value depending on the cheese being manufactured.


Posted By: Guests
Date Posted: 22 Mar 2010 at 10:40pm
What is the c:f of Mozz and Gouda? Is there a min % butter fat for cheddar cheese milk?


Posted By: Guests
Date Posted: 22 Mar 2010 at 10:40pm
Sorry not available to respond until early August. If no one has answered your query by then I will respond on my return.

Mike Mullan


Posted By: Guests
Date Posted: 22 Mar 2010 at 10:40pm
Sorry for delay in responding, I had hoped others would have responded by now.

Use of C:F ratios over the range 0.69 - 0.72 should give Mozzarella and Gouda of acceptable body qualities. Note the scope here for optomisation. Perhaps others will also comment?

With regard to the question concerning Cheddar, yes you can remove fat from milk or add fat to skimmed-milk and determine the minimum fat required to meet FDM and other requirements. This can be calulated using a range of casein concentartions and making basic assumption for casein and fat retention in the cheese. If I have time I will include a table of values sometime.

The paper by Boisen(1994)-see below gives an interesting commercial perspective on standardisation.
Boisen (1994). Control the standardization of the cheese milk-The key
to future improvement of cheese quality and profit in cheese production.
In ‘Cheese yield and factors affecting its control - Proceedings of IDF
Seminar held in Cork, Ireland’, p367-374. International Dairy Federation, Brussels (Belgium).

Hope this is of some value.


Posted By: Guests
Date Posted: 22 Mar 2010 at 10:41pm
One good software package for standardising milk for yoghurt and ice cream is ***** from ******. The interface in version 2 which I reviewed takes a while to get used too, but it is powerfull in that it has linear optimisation and calculation of mixes from a range of raw materials. If I remember correctly (and I do not have the software anymore, I only had it for a short time for the review) it also has a Pearsons square in it. It also has "whole bag" batching options and other process/manufacturing related options for ice cream and yoghurt making. Just have a look. For the review see www.adecron.co.nz.


Posted By: Guests
Date Posted: 22 Mar 2010 at 10:41pm
I would like to see a excel spreadsheet for dairy calculations used in cheese making that could be downloaded to a PDA


Posted By: Guests
Date Posted: 22 Mar 2010 at 10:41pm
Over the winter period I intend to complete the section on cheese manufacture and yield. I will consider including some Excel work books to download. If I have time I will incude PDA options.

You may be able to purchase these from various commercail sources now-try contacting Anny Dentener-see above-she may be able to help.

If you need help with equations etc and if I have some free time I will try to help.


Posted By: Guests
Date Posted: 22 Mar 2010 at 10:41pm
Thanks Mike



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