In this article we will explore how to use mix composition to control the hardness or "scoopability" of ice cream. The serving temperature which influences the concentration of ice present will also be considered. The volume of air added during freezing (overrun) and the concentration of emulsifier can also affect hardness. However, these effects are generally less significant than the concentration of sweeteners used and serving temperature. This article should be read in conjunction with the article on the sweetness of ice cream.
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The Dairy Science and Food Technology (DSFT) website provides scientific and technological information, Cloud-based tools and consultancy services for food scientists and technologists working in industry and in colleges and universities. A discussion forum and interactive content through "On Line" calculators are also provided. Writing/citation resources including a Harvard-type reference wizard and a range of citation-wizards can also be accessed.
There are sections on starter cultures, probiotics, cheese science and technology, bioactive peptides, ice cream, wine making, modelling in food technology, thermal processing and modified atmosphere packaging and labelling. Some general health information including reference to allergy and food intolerance is also presented.
This article discusses the origins and role of starters in dairy fermentations, the ecology of starter bacteria, the classification of starter bacteria, the types of starter culture used and concludes with some observations on artisanal cultures. The author has provided a broader perspective on the use of starter cultures in food fermentations in the Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology. The chapter can be downloaded from Elsevier Ltd.
Ecology of starter bacteria