Dairy Science and Food Technology

Scientific, information & consultancy services for the food industry

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DSFT has been providing science based consultancy services globally since 2002.
  
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The Dairy Science and Food Technology (DSFT) website provides scientific and technological information, Cloud-based tools and consultancy services for food scientists and technologists working in industry and in colleges and universities. A discussion forum and interactive content through "On Line" calculators are also provided. Writing/citation resources including a Harvard-type reference wizard and a range of citation-wizards can also be accessed.

There are sections on starter cultures, probiotics, cheese science and technology, bioactive peptides, ice cream, wine making, modelling in food technology, thermal processing and modified atmosphere packaging and labelling. Some general health information including reference to allergy and food intolerance is also presented.

Download Excel freezing point depression curve software for ice cream or gelato

The need of product development technologists to construct freezing point depression curves for ice cream or gelato mixes has been discussed. In particular knowledge of the concentration of frozen water at serving temperatures can be used to ensure that batches have acceptable hardness or scoopability.  Additionally the mass of frozen ice present can be used to calculate resistance to heat shock.

Calculation of a freezing curve is fairly straightforward and has been summarised on this website and by Goff and Hartel (2013) recently and by others (see references). The curve can readily be calculated using a spreadsheet. Two spreadsheet packages can be downloaded from this page. The packages are similar except that package 1 is unlocked and also contains an Excel workbook listing sucrose concentrations and the corresponding freezing point depressions (FPDs). The spreadsheet shows the Excel trend line with the corresponding fourth order polynomial regression equation and R2 value. Again all values are unlocked.  The data used to construct the freezing point curve were extrapolated from Leighton (1927) by Goff and Hartel (2013). Leighton (1927) obtained this data from the earlier work of Pickering (1891).

The formulas used to calculate FPD are locked in package 2 and there is no sucrose FPD calibration curve.

Details of the spreadsheet for calculating the freezing point of gelato/ice cream mixes are shown in figure 1.

Excel work book for constructing freezing point curves for ice cream

Figure 1. Spreadsheet for calculating the freezing point of gelato/ice cream mixes.

Users can investigate the effects of sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, monosaccharides (dextrose, fructose), maltodextrins, glucose syrups, high maltose corn syrups, MSNF, whey solids and the initial moisture concentration of mixes on FPD.

Ideally whey solids should be entered separately from MSNF. If so, their contribution to MSNF should not be included in the figure for MSNF.

Options have been provided to investigate the use of maltodextrins ranging from DE5 to DE18 (figure 2).

 Selection options for maltodextrin

Figure 2. Options for maltodextrin inclusion.

Glucose solids ranging in DE from 10 to 62 can also be used (figure 3).

 Selection options for DE glucose syrupss

Figure 3 Options for using glucose syrups

 A facility to investigate the use of high maltose corn syrup of DE42 and DE50 has also been added (figure 4).

 High maltose corn syrup selection options 
Figure 4 Options for high maltose corn syrup inclusion.

 The spreadsheet also provides users with two warning messages if the sucrose equivalent concentration in the frozen mix at a particular temperature exceeds 180 g per 100 g water. Pickering (1891) only investigated the effects of sucrose concentrations up to 180 g of sugar per 100 g of water so caution is required if users attempt to work with higher sucrose equivalent concentrations. Additionally cells giving the high values are coloured yellow or red depending on the magnitude of the calibration discrepancy.

 Download Excel freezing point curve spreadsheet packages for ice cream or gelato

Package 1

Two unlocked Excel spreadsheets, cost £100, one for calculating the freezing point depression curve for an ice cream or gelato mix and the other for calculating the regression equation relating sucrose concentration to freezing point depression can be downloaded. The regression equation uses sucrose equivalent values of mix components to determine FPD. Note the freezing point depression curve is not required for the calculator to work, the regression equation from the curve is already integrated into the calculator and can be accessed in the unlocked spreadsheet cells.

Note this spreadsheet package is now available as a free download to users who purchased the complete set of ice cream mix spreadsheets (pack 8). Users who have purchased pack 8 prior to the 30th August 2015 can obtain this spreadsheet package by donating £15 at the donation page. The package will be sent to you normally within 24 hours.

Please read the Frequently asked questions (FAQ) about the Microsoft Excel Ice Cream Mix spreadsheets supplied by the Dairy Science and Food Technology website before making a donation of £100.00 to obtain these spreadsheets. 

 


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Package 2

One locked Excel spreadsheet, cost £30, for calculating the freezing point depression curve for an ice cream or gelato mix.

Note this spreadsheet is now available (from the 30th August 2015) as a free download to users signing up to any of the subscriptions for  the Dairy Science and Food Technology ice cream mix calculator. Current subscribers can download the package using the Resource tab on the Calculator. Users who have taken out a subscription prior to 30th August, and which is not currently active, can obtain this spreadsheet package by donating £5 at the donation page. The package will be sent to you normally within 24 hours.

Please read the Frequently asked questions (FAQ) about the Microsoft Excel Ice Cream Mix spreadsheets supplied by the Dairy Science and Food Technology website before making a donation of £30.00 to obtain these spreadsheets. This spreadsheet is similar to the package above except that the formulae used to perform the calculations cannot be accessed and the calibration curve used to relate sucrose concentration to FPD has not been provided. The spreadsheet uses the regression equation to do the calculation but users cannot access the equation because the cells are locked.

  


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Literature cited

Goff, H. D. and Hartel, R. W. (2013). Ice Cream. 7th Edn.  Springer: New York.
Leighton, A. (1927). On the calculation of the freezing point of ice cream mixes and of quantities of ice separated during the freezing process. J. Dairy. Sci., 10, 300-308.
Pickering, S. V. (1891). The freezing point relationship of cane sugar. Berichte Deutsch. Chem. Gensellschaft, 24:333.

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