Several articles are being prepared and will be added when ready.
Chlorate. Major challenge for milk powder producers. Milk powders can contain high concentrations. Chlorate residues are particularly harmful to babies and young children. Companies that continue to produce milk powders with high concentrations of chlorate are at risk of going out of business.
TCM. Chloroform is another disinfection byproduct and is soluble in milk fat. Unlike chlorate, TCM levels in milk products are generally too low to be of significant public health concern. However, TCM levels could be used by countries to limit imports and thus have potential to be used as a trade barrier.
Urease and nitrification inhibitors in milk. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas. Its global warming potential could be over 300 times greater than that of CO2 (over a 100-year time scale). Globally, over half of N2O emissions come from agriculture — hence the interest in using urease and nitrification inhibitors on agricultural land to lessen the global warming effects of agriculture. This article looks at their residues in milk and the potential for these residues to be used as trade barriers and to protect indigenous agriculture from imports.