Dairy Science and Food Technology

Scientific, information & consultancy services for the food industry

 








 




 

 






 

 








 








 

 





 






 

 



 

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DSFT has been providing science based consultancy services globally since 2002.
  
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The Dairy Science and Food Technology (DSFT) website provides scientific and technological information, Cloud-based tools and consultancy services for food scientists and technologists working in industry and in colleges and universities. A discussion forum and interactive content through "On Line" calculators are also provided. Writing/citation resources including a Harvard-type reference wizard and a range of citation-wizards can also be accessed.

There are sections on starter cultures, probiotics, cheese science and technology, bioactive peptides, ice cream, wine making, modelling in food technology, thermal processing and modified atmosphere packaging and labelling. Some general health information including reference to allergy and food intolerance is also presented.

The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on dairy products, raw meat, raw poultry , cooked meat and fruit and vegetables is discussed.

Dairy products

 MAP has the potential to increase the shelf life of a number of dairy products.  These include fat-filled milk powders, cheeses and fat spreads.  In general these products spoil due to the development of oxidative rancidity in the case of powders and or the growth of micro-organisms, particularly yeasts and moulds, in the case of cheese.

Whole milk powder is particularly susceptible to the development of off-flavours due to fat oxidation.  Commercially the air is removed under vacuum and replaced with N2 or N2/CO2 mixes and the powder is hermetically sealed in metal cans. 

Model probability of detecting a pathogen in food.

Despite the global use of HACCP systems and a legal requirement for the use of HACCP in many jurisdictions' food poisoning remains an endemic problem and large numbers of people continue to be hospitalised, die and as a result companies either face substantial legal costs and / or in many cases are forced to cease trading.

While the use of HACCP systems significantly reduces the need for microbiological end point testing of foods, sampling schemes and microbial analysis have important roles in system validation and quality assurance.

This raises an issue concerning the adequacy of sampling schemes and microbial analysis in commercial food manufacture.

Growth and acid production by starter cultures may be inhibited by bacterial viruses, bacteriophages, or added substances including antibiotics, sterilant and detergent residues, or  free fatty acids produced by or as a result of the growth of microorganisms, and natural often called indigenous antimicrobial proteins.

There will be occasions when a food manufacturer wishes to use a different, but equivalent lethal thermal process. How does the processor calculate the equivalent process?

This article explains how to calculate an equivalent thermal or heat process at a higher or lower temperature and provides access to a free On Line calculator for checking your calculations.

Note this article has been updated to reflect the published consensus of researchers and clinicians at the conference on MAP in the US in 2017 that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a human pathogen (Kuenstner et al, 2017). 

The use of a high temperature short time heat treatment (HTST) of 72°C for 15 seconds to destroy pathogenic bacteria in milk, reduce the number of spoilage organisms and increase shelf life is well established (Cerf and Condron, 2006; Codex Alimentarius (2004); Juffs and Deeth, 2007).

Scoop of ice cream

In this article we will explore how to use mix composition to control the hardness or "scoopability" of ice cream. The serving temperature which influences the concentration of ice present will also be considered. The volume of air added during freezing (overrun) and the concentration of emulsifier can also affect hardness.

Range of flavoured ice creams

Ice cream and gelato manufacturers produce products with a range of favours. There are often significant variations in sweetness and hardness between flavours. This article provides an explanation of sweetness, how it is measured and how it can be controlled.

Relative sweetness and the Potere Dolcificante method are discussed and calculations are used to explain the differences. The limitations and disadvantages of using numerical values of sweetness are explained. Since sweetness and hardness are closely related the reader is also referred to the article on controlling hardness or resistance to scooping.

Starter bacteria in yoghurt

This article discusses the origins and role of starters in dairy fermentations, the ecology of starter bacteria, the classification of starter bacteria,  the types of starter culture used and concludes with some observations on artisanal cultures. The author has  provided a broader perspective on the use of starter cultures in food fermentations in the Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology. The chapter can be downloaded from Elsevier Ltd. This article should be read in conjunction with the article  discussing the major functions of starters in dairy fermentations and the relative importance and effectiveness of the antimicrobial agents produced by starters

This article discusses the major functions of starters in dairy fermentations. Recent research on the relative importance of the antimicrobial agents produced by starters is included. The importance of undissociated lactic acid is discussed with regard to the inhibition of the growth of Listeria monocyotgenes and E coli.

Chemical differences between cheeses

What makes one cheese e.g. Cheddar different from another e.g. Gouda or Emmental?

Can you explain why Gouda cheese is different than Cheshire or what makes Emmental different than Cheddar?

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