Dairy Science and Food Technology

Scientific, information & consultancy services for the food industry

 








 




 

 






 

 








 








 

 





 






 

 



 

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DSFT has been providing science based consultancy services globally since 2002.
  
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The Dairy Science and Food Technology (DSFT) website provides scientific and technological information, Cloud-based tools and consultancy services for food scientists and technologists working in industry and in colleges and universities. A discussion forum and interactive content through "On Line" calculators are also provided. Writing/citation resources including a Harvard-type reference wizard and a range of citation-wizards can also be accessed.

There are sections on starter cultures, probiotics, cheese science and technology, bioactive peptides, ice cream, wine making, modelling in food technology, thermal processing and modified atmosphere packaging and labelling. Some general health information including reference to allergy and food intolerance is also presented.

DOWNLOAD MICROSOFT EXCEL LETHAL RATE CALCULATORS

Technologists must be able to calculate the cumulative lethality of a heat process normally referred to as F,  P or PU. P or in some cases PU, is often used when pasteurization-type heat treatments are used. F will be used hereafter.

Cumulative lethality is defined using a reference temperature, e.g. 121.1 °C for an F0 calculation using a low acid food or e.g. 93.3 °C for an acid product, at which the equivalent lethal effects experienced during heating and cooling at lower temperatures are calculated.

Calculation of the F value is subject to a range of errors, including the error associated with determining the area under the lethality / time curve.

The area under the lethality curve is normally calculated using numerical integration. The most commonly used method is the trapezium or trapezoid method. An alternative, more accurate, but slightly more complicated method, is to use Simpson's rule or to be more correct Simpson's rules.

Site users can choose to download:

1) an Excel spreadsheet based-lethal rate calculator programmed using the trapezoid rule;

2) a more accurate and easier to use Excel workbook using both of Simpson's rules and also offering the option of using the trapezoid rule. This download also contains a spreadsheet to convert Z-values in Fahrenheit or Celsius to the desired measurement system and a PDF document listing D, F, Z values and reference temperatures for the major spoilage organisms of significance to processing low acid and acid foods. A link to a free On Line resource that details thermal resistance data for many spoilage and pathogenic organisms significant to the food and pharmaceutical industries is also provided;

3) all the spreadsheets above and the author's Ebook "Thermal processing of acid fruit and vegetable products. Significant microorganisms, recommended processing time / temperatures, and public health significance of spoilage."

Options 1 to 3 are available as immediate downloads.

Purchase can be made securely using major debit or credit cards or PayPal. PayPal processes all financial transactions on this site. Note a PayPal account is not required to make a credit or debit card payment.

NOTE!! Please change the SPAM settings on your Email software so that Email from dairyscience.info is approved otherwise your anti-spam software may reject your download link!

1.) Trapezium or trapezoid based Excel spreadsheet for calculating F values

The lethal rate calculator used on this site was validated using this Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (figure 1).

Graphic of Microsoft Excel spreadsheet for calculating Fo
Figure 1. Screen shot of a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet for calculating F values of thermal processes

The spreadsheet converts temperature to lethal rate and plots lethal rate and temperature against time. The trapezoid rule is used to calculate the area under the curve and depending on the reference temperature chosen Fo or other F value can be calculated. A graph showing the lethal rate and temperature against time is also plotted.

Note that the line number of the last data entry point ceased at line 29. It is very easy to add an infinitive number of data entries and a second spreadsheet showing how to do this was added on the 23rd January 2013.

The download contains a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and a document in PDF form. The PDF file explains the basis of lethal rate calculation and also how to use Microsoft Excel to calculate the area under a curve using the trapezoid rule.

All the cell formulas are unlocked. The spreadsheet is for your own personal educational use. The Terms and Conditions that apply to the Ice Cream Mix Spreadsheets also apply.

 
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Donate £9.99 to download the  F calculator spreadsheet package.

Following secure payment you will shortly receive an Email with a download link. The link is valid for 7-days and during this time you can download the spreadsheet 4-times.

NOTE!! Please change the SPAM settings on your Email software so that the Email address michael.mullan at dairyscience.info (replace the at with a @ symbol) is approved otherwise your Anti-spam software may reject the Email with the download link!


 

2.) Microsoft Excel workbook F calculator programmed using Simpson's rules and a worksheet programmed using the Trapezoid method for comparative analysis.

The workbook contains two worksheets and the details of the trapezoid sheet are shown in (Figure 2).

F calculator programmed using Simpson's rules

Figure 2. Screen shot of the updated trapezoid spread sheet for calculating F values of thermal processes available with option 2.

Note these spread sheets use advanced Excel programming knowledge and automatically generate data entry grids.

The cells coloured yellow are the input cells and the user can set the temperature interval between readings e.g. 0.5° C, the duration of the thermal process, the Z value and the reference temperature. Once the temperature interval and duration of the process are entered a grid will be generated to enable temperature values to be entered; conditional statements are used to generate this grid automatically.

There is also a facility to calculate the number of log reductions of a target microbial group at the reference temperature. To use this facility the user simply enters the corresponding D value at the reference temperature. Note, it is not essential to enter the D-value to calculate the F value. The D value is only required if the user needs to calculate the number of log reductions of a microbial group or organism.

The worksheet programmed using Simpson's rules is shown in Figure 3.

 

Worksheet programmed using Simpson's rules

Figure 3. Screen shot of the spread sheet programmed using Simpson's rules for calculating F values of thermal processes.

Simpson's one third rule is used to calculate area when the an odd number of data points are used and Simpson's three eights rule is used when working with an even number of data points. The spreadsheet undertakes these calculations automatically.

Again there is an option to calculate the log reduction in the target microbial group following heat processing.

As with both worksheets a message (figure 4) is given if no D-value is entered. The code for this message which is entered into cell C10 is given and can be altered by the user.

Code error

Figure 4. How to change the message shown when a value for D is not entered.

Both worksheets have been configured to start recording time at value 0. This can be changed to what ever value you require. After this has been done, the following values will increase by the time interval set.

The code used to set the initial time interval is entered into cell A15  and is shown in figure 6.

Spreadsheet screen shot

Figure 5. How to change initial time value shown on the option 2 spreadsheets.

Most users will not need to make these changes; this information is provided for advanced Excel users only and should work with most versions of Excel. To change the value from 0, simply replace the 0 with an appropriate number say 3 e.g. =IF(MXTF>0,3,"").

To enable users who prefer to work in Fahrenheit a zipped file with an adapted workbook is also provided.

I frequently get queries asking how to convert Z values from Fahrenheit to Celsius and vice versa and a Z-value converter is also enclosed in the zip file (Figure 6).

Z-converter

Figure 6. Screenshot of Z value converter.

A PDF document listing D, F, Z values and reference temperatures for the major spoilage organisms of significance to processing low acid and acid foods is also provided. Additionally a link to a free On Line resource that details thermal resistance data for many spoilage and pathogenic organisms significant to the food and pharmaceutical industries is provided


Visa MasterCard Discover American Express

 Donate £40.00 to download the Simpson F calculator spreadsheet package.

Following secure payment you will shortly receive an Email with a download link. The link is valid for 7-days and during this time you can download the spreadsheet 4-times.

All the cell formulas are unlocked. The spreadsheet is for your own personal educational use. The Terms and Conditions that apply to the Ice Cream Mix Spreadsheets also apply.


 3.) All the spreadsheets and information sources discussed above at 1 and 2 and the author's Ebook "Thermal processing of acid fruit and vegetable products. Significant microorganisms, recommended processing time / temperatures, and public health significance of spoilage."

This package contains the spread sheets and information sources described in 1 and 2 above and offers significant savings over purchasing the individual items! The author's Ebook on thermal processing is also included. The Terms and Conditions that apply to the Ice Cream Mix Spreadsheets also apply.

 


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Donate £60.00 to download the thermal processing Ebook and spreadsheet package.
 

 If you have questions, please contact us and we will respond, normally within one working day.

NAME:                                W. MICHAEL A. MULLAN

EDUCATION:                   

  • 2001           Certificate in 'Quality Management in Higher Education Institutions'.  University of Twente, Netherlands.                                           
  • 1983           PhD.  University of Glasgow.                                     
  • 1977           MSc (Dairy Science).  National University of Ireland, University College Cork.                                         
  • 1975           BSc (Hons), Food Science.  The Queen’s University Belfast.

CAREER SUMMARY: 

  •  2014-         CEO, Dairy Science and Food Technology consultancy
  • 2010- 2014. Head of Agriculture Education Branch, College of Agriculture, Food and Rural Enterprise
  • 2005-2010. Head of Higher Education Branch, College of Agriculture, Food and Rural Enterprise and Honorary Lecturer in Food Technology, Queen's University Belfast (2007-2008).
  • 2004-2005. Head of Projects, Peace Branch, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development
  • 1987 -Head of Food Education Division, Loughry College (to 2004) and Lecturer in Food Technology at the Queen's University Belfast (to July 2007).
  • 1982-1987. Senior Food Technologist and Head of Dairy Technology Section, Loughry College
  • 1977-1982. Lecturer and specialist adviser in Dairy Technology, West of Scotland College of Agriculture, Ayr, Scotland.
  • 1976-1977. Lecturer in Food Technology, Loughry College, Cookstown, N Ireland.

COMMITTEES / ROLES  ASSOCIATED WITH EDUCATION AND TRAINING AND / OR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT:

  • Chair College of Agriculture, Food and Rural Enterprise HE-Teaching and Learning Committee (2005 –2014).

  • Fellow of the Institute of Food Science and Technology (FIFST).

  •  External Examiner at Sheffield Hallam University (2005–2010).
  • Visiting lecturer at the Universita' Degli Studo Di Napoli, Federico 11, Italy.

  • Scientific referee for major journals including Journal of Dairy Research, Journal of Dairy Science, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, The Journal of Environmental Health Research and Food Microbiology
  • Member of the Open University Annual Monitoring Sub-Group of Validating Committee (2003-2005).
  • Expert Evaluator for Enterprise Ireland  Commercialisation Fund
  • External Examiner at University College Cork (2001 – 2004).
  • Member of the Advisory Board of the Biocolloids Centre, University College Dublin (1998 – 2000).
  • Chair of Loughry College Quality and Curriculum Development Committee (1996 –2004).
  • Member of the Food Science and Technology Management Board of the Queen’s University Belfast (1996 – 2002).
  • External Examiner at University College Cork (1995 – 1999).
  • Joint organiser and member of the Scientific Committee responsible for the International Dairy Federation Seminar on ‘Indigenous Antimicrobial Agents of Milk - Recent Developments’. Uppsalla, Sweden.  31st August and 1st September 1993.
  • Member of the organising committee of the joint Federation of European Microbiological Societies and International Dairy Federation seminar on the “Antimicrobial Proteins in Milk”, University of Bath, Bath, UK. 
    10th – 13th September 1985.
  • Secretary, deputy chairman, and UK representative on International Dairy Federation Group F19 (Indigenous Anti-Microbial Proteins in Milk) 1985-1995.
  • Course Team Leader of the Queens University Belfast,  MAgr (Dairy Technology) course (1982 - 1986).
  • Member of the Society of Dairy Technology.

PUBLICATIONS:

Michael Mullan has over 60 publications (see http://www.dairyscience.info/selected-publications.html) and has supervised MSc and PhD students.

Michael Mullan has produced some 60 publications ranging from book chapters, E-books, work on cheese starter cultures, process modelling, antimicrobial systems in milk, to the functional properties of Mozzarella cheese. In addition he has authored numerous commercial, product and process reports. 

Many of these publications can be downloaded from www.researchgate.net .

PUBLICATIONS
• Aprea, G., Mullan, W.M.A., Mullan, A., Murru, N., Tozzi, M., Cortesi., M.L. (2005). Isolation of polyphosphate-accumulating lactic acid bacteria from natural whey starters. Milchwissenshaft 60: 256-258.
• Aprea, G., Fusco G., Buonanno M., Murru N., Mullan M., Fitzgerald G., Galiero G. & Guarino A. (2011). Identification of a new lytic bacteriophage against Lactococcus lactis from natural whey starter cultures used in the production of the Italian buffalo Mozzarella cheese. IV International Conference on Environmental, Industrial and Applied Microbiology  (BioMicroWorld 2011), September 14-19, Torremolinos, Spain.
• Aprea, G., Mullan, W.M.A., Murru, N., Fitzgerald, G., Buonanno, M., Cortesi, M. L., Prencipe, V. A. and Migliorati, G. (2017). Multiplex PCR to detect bacteriophages from natural whey cultures of buffalo milk and characterisation of two phages active against Lactococcus lactis, ɸApr-1 and ɸApr-2. Veterinaria Italiana. 53, 207-214.
 • Bille, P.G., Mullan, W.M.A. and Espie, W.E. (1985). Observations on the effectiveness of agar media for the enumeration of leuconstocs from cheese and starter cultures. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 9:78.
• Bille, P.G., Espie, W.E. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1992). Evaluation of media for the isolation of leuconstocs from fermented products. Milchwissenschaft, 47:637-640. 
• Bjorck, L. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1993). Lactoperoxidase. In 'Determination of indigenous antimicrobial proteins of milk'. p29-31, Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation No. 284/1993, Brussels (Belgium).
• Casserly, F.M., Mullan, W.M.A. and Weatherup, S.T.C. (1994). The use of statistical methods to optimise yield in Cheddar cheese plants. In 'Cheese yield and factors affecting its control - Proceedings of IDF Seminar held in Cork, Ireland', p367-374. International Dairy Federation, Brussels (Belgium).
• Doherty, S., Mullan, W.M.A. and Tracey, C. (2001). Factors that influence food store patronage. 31st Annual Food Science and Technology Research Conference, University College Cork.
• Espie, W.E. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1987). Microbiological aspects of the quality of goat milk in Northern Ireland. Milchwissenschaft, 42:762-764.
• Espie, W.E. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1990). Compositional aspects of goat milk in Northern Ireland. Milchwissenschaft, 45:361-362.
• Ekstrand, B., Mullan, W.M.A. and Waterhouse, A. (1985). Inhibition of the antibacterial lactoperoxidase - thiocyanate - hydrogen peroxide system by heat-treated milk. Journal of Food Protection, 48:494-498.
• Haverbeck, J., Mullan, W.M.A. and Walker, A.L. (1983). Sensitivity of the Interest, Oxoid test. Delvotest P and disc assay to antibiotics. Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology, 36:36-40.
• Javaid, R., Sampson, J.E., Mullan, W.M.A., Kormos, J. (1984). Effects of storage time and temperature on various quality parameters in UHT milk subjected to a low-temperature bacterial protease inactivation treatment after manufacture.  Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology. 8 (2). 150.
• Johnston, D.E., Murphy, R.J., Gilmour, A., McGuiggan, J.T.M., Rowe, M.T. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1987). Manufacture of Cheddar cheese from thermised, cold-stored milk. Milchwissenschaft, 42:226-231.
• Johnston, D.E., Murphy, R.J., Gilmour, A., McGuiggan, J.T.M. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1988). Maturation and quality of Cheddar cheese from thermized cold stored milk. Milchwissenschaft, 43:211-215.
• Kahil, T., Mullan, W.M.A. and Strugnell, C. (1984). Some observations on methods used to heat classify skim milk powders. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 8:148.
• Loan, B.K. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1984). Effects of producing Cheddar cheese using direct vat inoculation with lyophilised cultures on cheese yield and quality. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 8:156.
• McAfee, T.A., Mullan, W.M.A. and Rowe, M.T. (1991). Carbonation of milk for cheesemaking. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 15:66-67.
• McCarney, T.A., Mullan, W.M.A. and Rowe, M.T. (1994). The effect of carbonation of milk on the yield and quality of Cheddar cheese. In 'Cheese yield and factors affecting its control - Proceedings of IDF Seminar held in Cork, Ireland', p302-308. International Dairy Federation, Brussels (Belgium).
• McCarney, T.A., Mullan, W.M.A. and Rowe, M.T. (1995). Effect of carbonation of milk on Cheddar cheese yield and quality. Milchwissenschaft, 50:670-674.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1979). Lactic streptococcal bacteriophage enumeration. Dairy Industries, 44 (7):1-15.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1979). A modified agar overlay method for the enumeration of bacteriophages for Str. cremoris strains AM1 and AM2. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 3:60.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1985). Observations on the role of phage lysin in the life cycle of phage ØC2(W) for Streptococcus lactis C2 and some properties of lysin-insensitive streptococci. Milchwissenschaft, 40:216-220.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1985). Technological significance of the indigenous antimicrobial systems of bovine milk. Proceedings of symposium on Natural antimicrobial systems. University of Bath, England, 10-13 September 1985. Part 2, pp82. International Dairy Federation, Brussels.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1986). Bacteriophage induced starter problems. Dairy Industries International, 51 (11):40-43.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (2000). Causes and control of early gas production in Cheddar cheese. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 53, 63-68.
• Mullan,W.M.A. (2012). Thermal processing of acid fruit and vegetable products. Significant microorganisms, recommended processing time / temperatures, and public health significance of spoilage.  Ebook available from: <http://www.dairyscience.info/index.php/thermal-processing.html>.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (2014). Starter Cultures: Importance of Selected Genera. In: Batt,C.A., Tortorello, M.L. (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology, vol 3. Elsevier Ltd, Academic Press, pp. 515–521. The chapter can be downloaded from Elsevier Ltd.
• Mullan, W. M. A. and McDowell, D. (2003) Modified Atmosphere Packaging. In 'Food Packaging Technology’. Edited by R. Coles, D. McDowell and M.Kirwan. Sheffield Academic Press. Sheffield.
• Mullan, W. M. A. and McDowell, D. (2011) Modified Atmosphere Packaging. In 'Food and Beverage Packaging Technology’. 2nd Edition. Edited by R. Coles and M. Kirwan. Wiley-Blackwell. Oxford. 
• Mullan, W.M.A., Daly, C. and Fox, P.F. (1979). Significance of temperature sensitive lactic streptococcal bacteriophages in phage classification and control. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 3:59.
• Mullan, W.M.A. and Walker, A.L. (1979). An agar medium and a simple streaking technique for the differentiation of the lactic streptococci. Dairy Industries, 44 (6):13, 17.
• Mullan, W.M.A. and Crawford, R.J.M. (1981). Isolation, purification and some properties of ØC2(w) lysin, a bacteriolytic enzyme produced by phage infected cells of Str. lactis C2. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 5 (1):74.
• Mullan, W.M.A. and Crawford, R.J.M. (1982). Inhibition of acid production in paired and multi-strain cultures of Group N streptococci with a lysin producing phage-host system.. 21 International Dairy Congress. Moscow, USSR. Vol. 1, Book 2, p 349-350.
• Mullan, W.M.A. and Crawford, R.J.M. (1982). ØC2(w) lysin, a bacteriolytic enzyme produced by phage infected cells of Str. lactis C2. 21 International Dairy Congress. Moscow, USSR. Vol. 1, Book 2, p 350-351.
• Mullan, W.M.A., Barnes, E.D. and Espie, W.E. (1983). Studies on gas production in Cheddar cheese. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 8: 85.
• Mullan, W.M.A., Daly, C. and Fox, P.F. (1981). Effect of cheesemaking temperatures on the interactions of lactic streptococci and their phages. Journal of Dairy Research, 48:465-471.
• Mullan, W.M.A., Daly, C. and Fox, P.F. (1981). Effects of temperature on the interaction of phage ml8(1) and Streptococcus lactis ML8. Milchwissenschaft. 36:288-290.
• Mullan, W.M.A., Waterhouse, A., Davies, G. and Wade, V.N. (1981). The production and storage stability of lactoperoxidase containing feeding materials for calf rearing experiments. Dairy Industries, 45 (l2):15, 18.
• Mullan, W.M.A., Waterhouse, A., Davies, G. and Wade, V.N. (1982). Production storage stability, and evaluation of lactoperoxidase containing feeding materials for calf rearing experiments. 21st International Dairy Congress, Moscow, USSR, Vol 1, Book 2, pp510.

• Mullan, W.M.A., Waterhouse, A. and McDowell, M. (1982). Activation of the lactoperoxidase (LP) system in calf milk replacers. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 6:199.
• Mullan, W.M.A. and Crawford, R.J.M. (1982). Inhibition of acid production in paired and multi-strain phage-unrelated cultures of Group N streptococci with a lysin producing phage-host system. 21st International Dairy Congress Moscow, USSR, Vo1 1. Book 2, pp349-350.
• Mullan, W.M.A., Barnes, E.D. and Espie, W.E. (1983). Studies on gas production in Cheddar cheese. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 8:85.
• Mullan, W.M.A. and Crawford, R.J.M. (1985). Lysin production by ØC2(W), a prolate phage for Streptococcus lactis C2. Journal of Dairy Research, 52:113-121.
• Mullan, W.M.A. and Crawford, R.J.M. (1985). Partial purification and some properties of ØC2(W) lysin, a lytic enzyme produced by phage-infected cells of Streptococcus lactis C2. Journal of Dairy Research, 52:123-128.
• Mullan, W.M.A. and Crawford, R.J.M. (1985). Factors affecting the lysis of Group N streptococci by phage lysin. Milchwissenschaft, 40:342-345.
• Mullan, W.M.A. and Crawford, R.J.M. (1985). Limitations of using multi-strain cultures in plaque assays of lactic streptococcal bacteriophages. Milchwissenschaft, 40:407-408.
• Mullan, W.M.A. and Walker, A.L. (1979) An agar medium and a simple streaking technique for the differentiation of the lactic streptococci. Dairy Industries, 44:(6) 13,17.
• Mullan,W.M.A., Waterhouse, A., Davies, G. and Wade, V.N. (1981) The production and storage stability of lactoperoxidase containing feeding materials for calf rearing experiments. Dairy Industries, 45:(12) 15,18.
• Mullan,W.M.A., Waterhouse, A., Davies, G. and Wade, V.N. (1982) Production, storage stability and evaluation of lactoperoxidase containing feeding materials for calf rearing experiments. 21st International Dairy Congress Moscow, USSR, Vo1 1. Book 2, pp 510.
• Savage, A.A. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1996). Quality perceptions and expectations of Mozzarella cheese producers and pizza manufacturers. Milchwissenschaft, 51:677-697.
• Savage, A.A. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1997). Effect of coagulant type on the functionality of Mozzarella cheese during refrigerated storage. Irish Journal of Agriculture and Food Research 36: 262-264.
• Savage, A.A. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1999). Evaluation of helical viscometry for assessing the functionality of molten Mozzarella cheese. Irish Journal of Agriculture and Food Research 38: 161.
• Savage, A.A. and Mullan, W.M.A. (2000). Evaluation of helical viscometry for assessing the functional properties of Mozzarella cheese. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 53, 57-62.
• Waterhouse, A., Arnott, D. P., Hughes, J., Laund, R. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1983). The lactoperoxidase system. Report of field extension study 1982/83. The West of Scotland Agricultural College, Auchincruive, Ayr, Scotland.
• Waterhouse, A., Hughes, J., Mullan, W., and Hynd, J. (1983). Activation of the lactoperoxidase system in calf milk replacers containing lactoperoxidase.  Animal Production.  36, 546-546.
• Walker, A.L., Mullan, W.M.A. and Muir, M.E. (1981). A survey of bulk starter production in the cheese industry. Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology, 34:78-84.
• Waterhouse, A. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1980). Addition of an active lactoperoxidase system to a milk substitute diet for calves. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 4:69.
• Waterhouse, A. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1980). Re-inclusion of an active lactoperoxidase system in a milk-substitute diet for calves. Animal Production, 30:458.
• Waterhouse, A., Mullan, W.M.A. and Extrand, B. (1982). The effects of giving milk replacers containing a lactoperoxidase system on calf performance and health. Animal Production, 34: 378.
• Waterhouse A. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1983). Activation of the lactoperoxidase system in calf milk replacers containing lactoperoxidase. Animal Production, 36: 546.
• Waterhouse A, and Mullan, W.M.A. (1985). The lactoperoxidase system in milk replacers for calves. Proceedings of symposium on Natural Antimicrobial Systems. University of Bath, England 10-13 September 1985. Part 2, pp85. International Dairy Federation, Brussels.
• Weatherup, W., Mullan, W.M.A. and Kormos, J. (1985). Effect of refrigerated storage of milk on the quality and yield of Cheddar cheese. Further observations. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 9:73.
• Weatherup, W., Mullan, W.M.A. and Kormos, J. (1988). Effect of storing milk at 3°C and 7°C on the quality and yield of Cheddar cheese. Dairy Industries International, 53 (12):16, 17, 25.
• Weatherup, W. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1994). Effects of the low temperature storage of milk on the quality and yield of cheese. In 'Cheese yield and factors affecting its control - Proceedings of IDF Seminar held in Cork, Ireland' pp85-94. International Dairy Federation, Brussels (Belgium).
• Zameni, E., Mullan, W.M.A. and Espie, W.E. (1985). Lactic streptococcal bacteriophage enumeration. Observations on the influence of host cell concentration on plaque formation. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 9:79.

SELECTED INTERNATIONAL DAIRY FEDERATION PUBLICATIONS PRODUCED BY IDF
GROUP F19

• Code of practice for preservation of raw milk by lactoperoxidase system. International Dairy Federation. Brussels (Belgium). FIL/IDF No. 234/1988.
• Significance of the indigenous antimicrobial agents of milk to the dairy industry. Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation. 264/1991, Brussels (Belgium).

INVITED PAPERS GIVEN AT CONFERENCES

• Mullan, W.M.A., Crawford, R.J.M. and Parry, J.E. (1981). Group N streptococcal phage lysins isolation, characterisation and potential for phage resistant mutant selection. Paper presented at the International Circle of Dairy Research Leader's meeting: Genetic Modification of Starter Cultures at the National Institute for Research in Dairying Reading, 1 3 April 1981.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1982). Studies on the activation of the LP system in milk replacers. Paper presented at a workshop on 'The lactoperoxidase system in calf feeding'. Swedish University of Agriculture, Upsalla, Sweden, September 1982.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1982). Studies of the possibilities for lactoperoxidase activity in vivo in calves, endogenous or activated. Paper presented at a workshop on 'The Lactoperoxidase system in calf feeding'. Swedish University of Agriculture. Upsalla, Sweden, September 1982.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1982). Studies on how to activate the LP system in milk replacers and studies of the LP activity in vivo in calves. Paper presented at Workshop on the lactoperoxidase system at Instituut Voor Veevoedingsonderzoek, Hoorn, Netherlands, September 1982.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1985). Practical problems of starter use in cheese manufacture. Paper presented at Marschall International Dairy Symposium, London, November 1985.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1986). Technological significance of the antimicrobial proteins of bovine milk.. Paper presented at "Workshop on antimicrobial systems", Moorepark Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland, April 1986.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1988). Significance of the antimicrobial proteins in milk to the dairy industry. Paper presented at International Dairy Federation "Cheese Week", Rennes, France, May 1988.
• Weatherup, W. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1990). Influence of raw materials and process control on cheese quality. Paper presented at Marschall International Dairy Symposium, London, November 1990.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1993). Lactoperoxidase and other milk-derived systems. Paper presented at Unilever Research Colworth Laboratory, Sharnbrook Bedford England, 27-28 May 1993.
Mullan, Michael (2012). Bacteriophage and food fermentations. Phage assay and enumeration. In: L Laboratori Nazionali di Riferimento per Listeria monocytogenes e Camplpylobacter. Seminario. 10-12 December, 2012, Teramo, Italy. This can be downloaded from <www.researchgate.net>.

 

 

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