This section provides an access point to a range of calculators and models. These include calculators for determining the theoretical yields of Cheddar cheese (Van Slyke), the yield of Cottage cheese, the volumes of skim and whole milk required to standardise milk to a required fat content, the predicted grade value of Cheddar cheese, casein retention, fat retention, casein to fat ratio, protein to fat ratio, the quantities of ingredients required for a balanced ice cream mix, the ideal MSNF value for ice cream, MSNF in unwashed butter, MSNF in cream and the energy value of foods. Software for calculating the F value of thermal processes has also been provided. This software can be used to teach the principles of thermal processing or to check the adequacy of, for example, a canning process. It is easy to use and applicable to a broad range of thermal processes.

Click to stop cracks and slits in cheese

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Processing aids

 Pearson square or rectangle for use with milk, cream, wine, meat manufacture.
  Calculate the % lactic acid, Soxhlet Henkel degrees, Thörner degrees, Soxhlet Henkel degrees and Dornic degrees of a milk sample.

 Calculate milk fat concentration required to produce a whole milk powder of specified fat concentration.
Calculate casein:fat and protein:fat ratios in milk for product manufacture.

Cheese yield

Van Slyke theoretical yield
Van Slyke adjusted for moisture
Casein retention
Fat retention
Yield analysis spreadsheet
Calculate the yield of Cottage cheese

Cheese quality

Grading value predictor for Cheddar

Nutrition / labelling tools

Energy density or calorie counter for foods
Sodium chloride (salt) calculator

Writing tools

Improve your writing by using an On Line readability calculator

Harvard-style reference generator
 Convert numbers to scientific notation
Convert numbers in scientific notation to standard format
Calculate the percentage change in the initial or start and final values
Calculate the percentage difference (the absolute value -regardless of sign) of the change in value for any two numbers that belong to the same category.

Food safety/spoilage models

Model the probability of Listeria monocytogenes growing in cheese.
Model the probability of detecting a pathogen in a food.

Determine whether a product containing acetic acid meets the Comité des Industries des Mayonnaises et Sauces Condimentaires de la Communauté Économique Européenne (CIMSCEE) model for a safe and stable product.
Predicting the growth of Salmonella spp on sliced-tomatoes.
Predict microbial numbers using doubling or generation time.
Calculator for determining the concentration of undissociated lactic acid in cheese and whether the cheese will support the growth of Listeria monocytgenes.
 Calculator for determining the concentration of an undissociated organic acid in cheese 

Models for shelf life prediction

• Shelf life of pasteurised milk. 
 Mould free shelf life of cakes. 

Aw and moisture isotherms

Calculator for determining equilibrium moisture values corresponding to selected Aw values using the Guggenheim–Anderson–de Boer (GAB) model.
  Calculator for determining equilibrium moisture values corresponding to selected Aw values using the Brunauer-Emmett-Tellet (BET) model.

Microbial sampling statistics 

Calculate probability of detecting a pathogen
Calculate the number of samples required to test to meet a food standard
Calculate the prevalence of a pathogen in a food that has tested negative after analysis

Mathematical tools

Generate a random number sequence
Solve a two variable simultaneous equation
Calculate the number of replications of an experiment to achieve the desired degrees of freedom

Thermal processing

 Calculator for determining the F or P value of a thermal process
Simplified version of the Dairy Science and Food technology F and P value calculator.
Calculator for determining the lethality (F, value) of a thermal process using the trapezoid and Simpson's rules. This unique calculator works with thousands of pasted values e.g. from a data logger
Calculate an equivalent heat process at a higher (or lower temperature) knowing the z-value and the F (P) value at the reference temperature
 How do you calculate the z-value given two equivalent but different thermal processes?
 Spoilage probability calculator
Modelling the destruction of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) during HTST pasteurisation of milk
• Calculator for determining the Decimal Reduction Time (D) for a microorganism knowing the D-value at the reference temperature and the Z-value using the Bigelow method and the Arrhenius equation.
Calculator for determining the number of survivors of a microbial population after a defined heat treatment
Calculator for determining the time required to reduce an initial population of a microorganism to a predetermined number of survivors
 Modelling holding time at a designated temperature on user designated quality factors, including biological activity, degradation

Ice cream / gelato manufacture

Note. These calculators are only available to subscribers to the  On Line Ice Cream Mix calculator.
Ice cream mix calculator 
MSNF concentration of cream  
MSNF concentration of unwashed butter 
MSNF concentration required for a balanced ice-cream mix
Ice cream density and weight calculator
Calculation of maximum safe overrun for ice cream
Calculator for determining maximum MSNF compatible with normal fat agglomeration in ice cream or gelato
Predict Overall Degree of Liking of ice cream based on fat and sugar content using Response Surface Methodology
Find the ideal sugar concentration to balance fat in ice cream or gelato

Pasteurization and UHT processing

Calculator for determining Reynolds number
Calculator for determining average holding time in a pasteurizer or UHT holding tube
Calculator for determining holding tube length in pasteurizing and UHT plant
Calculator for predicting the concentration of HMF, lactulose and furosine in heated milks (whole, semi-skim and skimmed milk). It also calculates the F0, B* and C* values and the destruction of thiamine. The values are integrated using the industry standard method, the trapezoid rule, and are compared with a more accurate method of numerical integration, Simpson's 1/3 and 3/8 rules. Designed to take thousands of pasted values.
Simple calculator for determining the F, B* and C* values following ultra-high temperature (UHT) processing of milk
• Calculator for determining the lethality (F, B* values) and chemical changes (C* value) for UHT processes using the trapezoid and Simpson's rules. Applicable to all UHT processes and designed to take thousands of pasted values.
Determine the accuracy of 3 algorithms for determine the concentration of lactulose in milk after a defined heat treatment
Calculator for determining the Fo value of a UHT process using Bigelow and Arrhenius models

Unit converters

Convert between Soxhlet Henkel degrees, Thörner degrees, Dornic degrees and percentage lactic acid milk titratable acidity measurements
Convert between pressure units


Prepare a solution to a given molarity

Using a standard solution prepare an assay or test solution of designated volume and molarity

Population, and population error sampling (statistical surveys)

 How do you choose a sample size for a survey?
How do you calculate the margin of error in a statistical sampling scheme?