Dairy Science and Food Technology

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Assessment of cheese quality is essential in order to determine if the cheese conforms to legal standards, meets the requirements of the buyer and ultimately the customer and to grade the cheese for payment. A cheese may meet all legal and safety requirements but have appearance, flavour and or texture defects that make it unsuitable for consumer use.

During maturation, bacteria and enzymes act on the fat, protein and carbohydrate in the cheese to produce the body, texture and flavour characteristic of mature Cheddar and other cheeses. The changes in body and texture that transform the rubbery, elastic mass of curd to a cheese with a firm close texture are the results of protein and fat degradation. The release of volatile components from the curd gives the aroma to cheese and associated flavours.

Chemical differences between cheeses

There are many ways in which traditional cheeses can be classified. Criteria such as country of origin, type of milk used, species of animal used to produce the milk, fat content, moisture content, texture, whether mould ripened or not, cheese making process used, moisture in the non-fat solids have been and continue to be used. These criteria have been used either singly or in combination.

These descriptive approaches are limited in that they provide no theoretical insight into why one cheese is different from another.  In other words, why is Gouda cheese different than Cheshire or what makes Emmental different than Cheddar cheese?

For many years researchers in New Zealand, the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands and elsewhere were aware that there were significant differences in the pH and mineral concentrations of the major cheese varieties. 

The questions below have been designed to test knowledge and understanding of cheese science and technology. They are based on an E-book that I will eventually incorporate into the site. In the meantime 'browsers' can test their knowledge and understanding of cheese technology by attempting the questions below. A link to most of the answers is also given at the end of the question section. 

Cheese science and technology questions.

There is increasing interest in farmhouse cheese making in the UK and Ireland and Jongia (UK) Ltd., a supplier of equipment and ingredients to the UK and Irish dairy industry, offers study tours to German dairies. These study tours offer existing and potential new businesses an opportunity to see equipment in action and to discuss cheese production and marketing with farmhouse producers.

The study tours are offered as intensive one or two day trip, depending on flights and and are planned to be low cost.

Study tours take place in the spring and autumn each year.  Participants can select from 3- routes, each with a different accent for a different market. Many cheese makers have joined all of the trips, even a few coming twice! Participants have included seasoned cheese makers, novices and hobbyists.


Berlin area, 3 - 4 dairies, with the accent on fresh products, like drinking milk, yoghurt, curd cheese (quark) and soft cheese. Two of the dairies are organic (one bio-dynamic) and one is goat milk dairy. Depending on flights we can execute this as a day trip

Westpahlia (Dortmund area), 5 or more dairies. The accent is on Gouda/Edam type cheese and curd cheese (quark).

Bavaria/Austria border. 4 dairies with the accent on soft cheese and mountain cheese. The latter is an Edam type process with a red smear coating.

Our participants are always very enthusiastic after the trips, having not only seen new ways to solve problems they might have, but also having made new contacts and friends. All have indicated that the interactions with the other participants were an important part of each study tour.

Examples of  technology and developments seen on study tours

The Westphalia trip visits exclusively cheese makers who are also farmers and run farm shops as well, while a few also run restaurants. These farmers are now entrepreneurs of the first degree and are eager to share their experience with us. Images of a dairy shop are given in plates 1-3 below.


 Exterior of farm dairy shop at Thomashof in Burscheid


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