Characteristics - Murianengo is a typical Piedmont cheese also known as ‘Moncenisio’ with cylindrical appearance and flat surfaces. The cylindrical shape has a diameter of 25-35 cm, an edge of 10-20 cm and a weight of 8-10 kg. Ripening lasts at least 90 days but frequently is longer than 200 days. The crust is wrinkled, hard, reddish-grey with yellow and white highlights. The dough is ivory-white or dark-yellow with small holes. In ripened cheese, greenish-blue veins due to mould growth are present. The texture is hard, compact and very friable. In fresher cheeses, the odour is fine and delicate, becoming very strong and persistent in aged products. The taste is mainly sweet and fine but savoury, salty and intense in aged products.

Dr. Rattan ChandDr. Chand is a Principal Scientist in Dairy Microbiology at the N.D.R.I., Karnal, India. He is engaged in research, teaching, guidance of postgraduate students and consultancy to the dairy industry.

Research experience

Dr Chand has 35 years of research experience and has guided 11 postgraduate and 5 Ph.D. students. He is co-advisor of various inter-disciplinary committees in the areas of fermented dairy products, bacteriophages, bacterial toxin, mycotoxin, bio-oils, bio-remediation and bioactive peptides and their applications. Rattan Chand has published more than 100 papers in international and national journals. Dr Chand has visited the USA as a visiting professor under the AHRD programme. Major achievements in the field of dairy science and technology include :

While phage lysin has long been suspected of having an important part in phage lysis it has taken techniques using molecular biology to clarify its in vivo role.

Ice Cream Mix Calculator

The objective in calculating ice cream mixes is to turn a formula into a recipe based on the intended ingredients and the mass or volume of mix required.  The recipe is then processed to obtain ice cream for distribution and sale.  In the UK and in North America the formula is given as percentages of fat, milk solids-not-fat (MSNF), sugar, stabilisers-(stabilizers in the US) and emulsifiers. Since several ingredients may be available to supply these components e.g. MSNF available ingredients are selected on the basis of quality and cost.

Users must first log on to the calculator using the user name selected and the password that has been sent to your  Email-address. If you can see the "log on" button as shown in the screen shot below you have not logged in!

Download Microsoft Excel standardisation calculator for whole milk powder manufacture

The calculator used on this web site for producing milk powder to a target fat concentration was validated using a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. This spreadsheet is available for download subject to a small donation (£4.99, < €6 or <US $10, conversions based on the exchange rate at March 2012) to contribute towards the running costs of the Dairy Science and Food Technology website.

The download contains one Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and a document in PDF form. The PDF file explains the basis of the calculations. A screenshot of the spreadsheet is shown in figure 1.

 Image of Excel spreadsheet for producing whole milk powder to fat target

Figure 1. Screenshot of the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet for undertaking calculations to determine the fat concentration required to produce a milk powder to a defined fat concentration.

All the cell formulas are unlocked. The spreadsheet is for your own personal educational use. Only make a donation if you accept the Terms and Conditions for the use of Spreadsheets from this site.


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Following secure payment you will shortly receive an Email with a download link. The link is valid for 7-days and during this time you can download the spreadsheet 4-times.


An article on thermal process modelling has been added. This article calculates the effect of HTST treatment on the number of log reductions of major milk pathogens and discusses the temperature milk should be pasteurized if Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was designated as a human pathogen. The log reductions refer to log10 or decimal (10 fold) reductions in the concentration of viable bacteria.

 Effect of HTST treatment on the number of log reductions of major milk pathogens.

Characteristics (Denomination of Protected Origin 12 June 1996) - Taleggio is a quadrangular cheese with flat surfaces. The square shape has a side of 18-20 cm, an edge of 4-7 cm and a weight of 1.7-2.2 kg. The ripening lasts at least 40 days. The crust is thin and soft, regular with a light grey-green colour. The dough is white or ivory-white with small and sparse holes. The texture is moderately consistent and elastic. The odour is soft with milk and cream characteristics. The taste is also very soft and mainly sweet.

Emily HaqueEmily Haque is a PhD student at the National Dairy Research Institute, India. This research is being supervised by Dr. Rattan Chand.

Research area

Bioactive peptides derived from milk fermented with Lactobacillus helveticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: biochemical and functional characterisation.

Research experience

• Microbiological techniques
• Plasmid isolation, PCR, RT-PCR, SDS-PAGE, Western blotting

The activity of phage lysins can be determined using several methods; turbidimetry or the determination of the change in concentration of some solubilised cell wall component are frequently used.

 Turbimetry, where a standardised suspension of cells in buffer is mixed with a sample of lysin-containing material is widely used. The lysin causes lysis of the cell suspension and a reduction in optical density (OD). Enzyme activity can be calculated from the decrease in OD with time.

The following method has been found to give satisfactory results (Mullan and Crawford, 1985a).

Cells were suspended in 0.1 M-K phosphate buffer, pH 6.8, to give an OD at 450nm of 0.62-0.75. Depending on the lytic activity, 0.1-1.0 ml of lysin containing solution was added to 5ml of standardized cell suspension at 37°C. After mixing, OD readings were taken at 30 s intervals over a 2-6 min period. Absorption readings were plotted against time and only values on the linear portion of the graphs were used for calculation.


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