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I get lots of queries from companies and individuals either requesting recommendations for people who might be suitable for dairy science, dairy technologist, food technologist jobs or for advice from food job seekers on vacancies in particular job areas. I regret that I can no longer respond directly to these queries, I simply do not have the time to do so.

I will use  this page to  publicise posts connected with the subject areas covered by this site and will consider publicising the details of people searching for work here also. If you wish to advertise a vacancy on this site please use the contact form to discuss your vacancy. Companies placing adverts normally make a small donation towards the running costs of the Dairy Science and Food Technology website or link to this site.  

You can also obtain information about careers and current vacancies in food science and food technology in the links section of this site. I will try to keep these updated and have added a number of  recruitment company links. Note that there is a world wide shortage of food scientists and technologists and that pay and working conditions in many countries now reflect this new reality. Food scientists and technologists with postgraduate qualifications are particularly well paid in the US and the remuneration situation is now improving significantly in the UK, Ireland and in other parts of Europe.

Michael Mullan has produced publications ranging from book chapters, E-books, work on cheese starter cultures, process modelling, antimicrobial systems in milk, to the functional properties of Mozzarella cheese. In addition he has authored numerous commercial, product and process reports. 

Many of these publications can be downloaded from www.researchgate.net .

PUBLICATIONS
• Aprea, G., Mullan, W.M.A., Mullan, A., Murru, N., Tozzi, M., Cortesi., M.L. (2005). Isolation of polyphosphate-accumulating lactic acid bacteria from natural whey starters. Milchwissenshaft 60: 256-258.
• Aprea, G., Fusco G., Buonanno M., Murru N., Mullan M., Fitzgerald G., Galiero G. & Guarino A. (2011). Identification of a new lytic bacteriophage against Lactococcus lactis from natural whey starter cultures used in the production of the Italian buffalo Mozzarella cheese. IV International Conference on Environmental, Industrial and Applied Microbiology  (BioMicroWorld 2011), September 14-19, Torremolinos, Spain.
• Aprea, G., Mullan, W.M.A., Murru, N., Fitzgerald, G., Buonanno, M., Cortesi, M. L., Prencipe, V. A. and Migliorati, G. (2017). Multiplex PCR to detect bacteriophages from natural whey cultures of buffalo milk and characterisation of two phages active against Lactococcus lactis, ɸApr-1 and ɸApr-2. Veterinaria Italiana. 53, 207-214.
 • Bille, P.G., Mullan, W.M.A. and Espie, W.E. (1985). Observations on the effectiveness of agar media for the enumeration of leuconstocs from cheese and starter cultures. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 9:78.
• Bille, P.G., Espie, W.E. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1992). Evaluation of media for the isolation of leuconstocs from fermented products. Milchwissenschaft, 47:637-640. 
• Bjorck, L. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1993). Lactoperoxidase. In 'Determination of indigenous antimicrobial proteins of milk'. p29-31, Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation No. 284/1993, Brussels (Belgium).
• Casserly, F.M., Mullan, W.M.A. and Weatherup, S.T.C. (1994). The use of statistical methods to optimise yield in Cheddar cheese plants. In 'Cheese yield and factors affecting its control - Proceedings of IDF Seminar held in Cork, Ireland', p367-374. International Dairy Federation, Brussels (Belgium).
• Doherty, S., Mullan, W.M.A. and Tracey, C. (2001). Factors that influence food store patronage. 31st Annual Food Science and Technology Research Conference, University College Cork.
• Espie, W.E. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1987). Microbiological aspects of the quality of goat milk in Northern Ireland. Milchwissenschaft, 42:762-764.
• Espie, W.E. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1990). Compositional aspects of goat milk in Northern Ireland. Milchwissenschaft, 45:361-362.
• Ekstrand, B., Mullan, W.M.A. and Waterhouse, A. (1985). Inhibition of the antibacterial lactoperoxidase - thiocyanate - hydrogen peroxide system by heat-treated milk. Journal of Food Protection, 48:494-498.
• Haverbeck, J., Mullan, W.M.A. and Walker, A.L. (1983). Sensitivity of the Interest, Oxoid test. Delvotest P and disc assay to antibiotics. Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology, 36:36-40.
• Javaid, R., Sampson, J.E., Mullan, W.M.A., Kormos, J. (1984). Effects of storage time and temperature on various quality parameters in UHT milk subjected to a low-temperature bacterial protease inactivation treatment after manufacture.  Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology. 8 (2). 150.
• Johnston, D.E., Murphy, R.J., Gilmour, A., McGuiggan, J.T.M., Rowe, M.T. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1987). Manufacture of Cheddar cheese from thermised, cold-stored milk. Milchwissenschaft, 42:226-231.
• Johnston, D.E., Murphy, R.J., Gilmour, A., McGuiggan, J.T.M. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1988). Maturation and quality of Cheddar cheese from thermized cold stored milk. Milchwissenschaft, 43:211-215.
• Kahil, T., Mullan, W.M.A. and Strugnell, C. (1984). Some observations on methods used to heat classify skim milk powders. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 8:148.
• Loan, B.K. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1984). Effects of producing Cheddar cheese using direct vat inoculation with lyophilised cultures on cheese yield and quality. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 8:156.
• McAfee, T.A., Mullan, W.M.A. and Rowe, M.T. (1991). Carbonation of milk for cheesemaking. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 15:66-67.
• McCarney, T.A., Mullan, W.M.A. and Rowe, M.T. (1994). The effect of carbonation of milk on the yield and quality of Cheddar cheese. In 'Cheese yield and factors affecting its control - Proceedings of IDF Seminar held in Cork, Ireland', p302-308. International Dairy Federation, Brussels (Belgium).
• McCarney, T.A., Mullan, W.M.A. and Rowe, M.T. (1995). Effect of carbonation of milk on Cheddar cheese yield and quality. Milchwissenschaft, 50:670-674.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1979). Lactic streptococcal bacteriophage enumeration. Dairy Industries, 44 (7):1-15.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1979). A modified agar overlay method for the enumeration of bacteriophages for Str. cremoris strains AM1 and AM2. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 3:60.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1985). Observations on the role of phage lysin in the life cycle of phage ØC2(W) for Streptococcus lactis C2 and some properties of lysin-insensitive streptococci. Milchwissenschaft, 40:216-220.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1985). Technological significance of the indigenous antimicrobial systems of bovine milk. Proceedings of symposium on Natural antimicrobial systems. University of Bath, England, 10-13 September 1985. Part 2, pp82. International Dairy Federation, Brussels.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1986). Bacteriophage induced starter problems. Dairy Industries International, 51 (11):40-43.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (2000). Causes and control of early gas production in Cheddar cheese. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 53, 63-68.
• Mullan,W.M.A. (2012). Thermal processing of acid fruit and vegetable products. Significant microorganisms, recommended processing time / temperatures, and public health significance of spoilage.  Ebook available from: <http://www.dairyscience.info/index.php/thermal-processing.html>.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (2014). Starter Cultures: Importance of Selected Genera. In: Batt,C.A., Tortorello, M.L. (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology, vol 3. Elsevier Ltd, Academic Press, pp. 515–521. The chapter can be downloaded from Elsevier Ltd.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (2018). Controlling the hardness of ice cream, gelato and similar frozen desserts. Food Science and Technology OnLine Journal. Available from http://www.fstjournal.org/features/controlling-hardness-ice-cream-gelato-and-similar-frozen-desserts
• Mullan, W M A (2019). Are we closer to understanding why viable cells of Mycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis are still being reported in pasteurised milk? International Journal of Dairy Technology, 72:323-344.  DOI-10.1111/1471-0307.12617.  Read only access : https://rdcu.be/bGnES .
• Mullan, W. M. A. and McDowell, D. (2003) Modified Atmosphere Packaging. In 'Food Packaging Technology’. Edited by R. Coles, D. McDowell and M.Kirwan. Sheffield Academic Press. Sheffield.
• Mullan, W. M. A. and McDowell, D. (2011) Modified Atmosphere Packaging. In 'Food and Beverage Packaging Technology’. 2nd Edition. Edited by R. Coles and M. Kirwan. Wiley-Blackwell. Oxford. 
• Mullan, W.M.A., Daly, C. and Fox, P.F. (1979). Significance of temperature sensitive lactic streptococcal bacteriophages in phage classification and control. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 3:59.
• Mullan, W.M.A. and Walker, A.L. (1979). An agar medium and a simple streaking technique for the differentiation of the lactic streptococci. Dairy Industries, 44 (6):13, 17.
• Mullan, W.M.A. and Crawford, R.J.M. (1981). Isolation, purification and some properties of ØC2(w) lysin, a bacteriolytic enzyme produced by phage infected cells of Str. lactis C2. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 5 (1):74.
• Mullan, W.M.A. and Crawford, R.J.M. (1982). Inhibition of acid production in paired and multi-strain cultures of Group N streptococci with a lysin producing phage-host system. 21 International Dairy Congress. Moscow, USSR. Vol. 1, Book 2, p 349-350.
• Mullan, W.M.A. and Crawford, R.J.M. (1982). ØC2(w) lysin, a bacteriolytic enzyme produced by phage infected cells of Str. lactis C2. 21 International Dairy Congress. Moscow, USSR. Vol. 1, Book 2, p 350-351.
• Mullan, W.M.A., Barnes, E.D. and Espie, W.E. (1983). Studies on gas production in Cheddar cheese. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 8: 85.
• Mullan, W.M.A., Daly, C. and Fox, P.F. (1981). Effect of cheesemaking temperatures on the interactions of lactic streptococci and their phages. Journal of Dairy Research, 48:465-471.
• Mullan, W.M.A., Daly, C. and Fox, P.F. (1981). Effects of temperature on the interaction of phage ml8(1) and Streptococcus lactis ML8. Milchwissenschaft. 36:288-290.
• Mullan, W.M.A., Waterhouse, A., Davies, G. and Wade, V.N. (1981). The production and storage stability of lactoperoxidase containing feeding materials for calf rearing experiments. Dairy Industries, 45 (l2):15, 18.
• Mullan, W.M.A., Waterhouse, A., Davies, G. and Wade, V.N. (1982). Production storage stability, and evaluation of lactoperoxidase containing feeding materials for calf rearing experiments. 21st International Dairy Congress, Moscow, USSR, Vol 1, Book 2, pp510.
• Mullan, W.M.A., Waterhouse, A. and McDowell, M. (1982). Activation of the lactoperoxidase (LP) system in calf milk replacers. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 6:199.
• Mullan, W.M.A. and Crawford, R.J.M. (1982). Inhibition of acid production in paired and multi-strain phage-unrelated cultures of Group N streptococci with a lysin producing phage-host system. 21st International Dairy Congress Moscow, USSR, Vo1 1. Book 2, pp349-350.
• Mullan, W.M.A., Barnes, E.D. and Espie, W.E. (1983). Studies on gas production in Cheddar cheese. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 8:85.
• Mullan, W.M.A. and Crawford, R.J.M. (1985). Lysin production by ØC2(W), a prolate phage for Streptococcus lactis C2. Journal of Dairy Research, 52:113-121.
• Mullan, W.M.A. and Crawford, R.J.M. (1985). Partial purification and some properties of ØC2(W) lysin, a lytic enzyme produced by phage-infected cells of Streptococcus lactis C2. Journal of Dairy Research, 52:123-128.
• Mullan, W.M.A. and Crawford, R.J.M. (1985). Factors affecting the lysis of Group N streptococci by phage lysin. Milchwissenschaft, 40:342-345.
• Mullan, W.M.A. and Crawford, R.J.M. (1985). Limitations of using multi-strain cultures in plaque assays of lactic streptococcal bacteriophages. Milchwissenschaft, 40:407-408.
• Mullan, W.M.A. and Walker, A.L. (1979) An agar medium and a simple streaking technique for the differentiation of the lactic streptococci. Dairy Industries, 44:(6) 13,17.
• Mullan,W.M.A., Waterhouse, A., Davies, G. and Wade, V.N. (1981) The production and storage stability of lactoperoxidase containing feeding materials for calf rearing experiments. Dairy Industries, 45:(12) 15,18.
• Mullan,W.M.A., Waterhouse, A., Davies, G. and Wade, V.N. (1982) Production, storage stability and evaluation of lactoperoxidase containing feeding materials for calf rearing experiments. 21st International Dairy Congress Moscow, USSR, Vo1 1. Book 2, pp 510.
• Savage, A.A. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1996). Quality perceptions and expectations of Mozzarella cheese producers and pizza manufacturers. Milchwissenschaft, 51:677-697.
• Savage, A.A. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1997). Effect of coagulant type on the functionality of Mozzarella cheese during refrigerated storage. Irish Journal of Agriculture and Food Research 36: 262-264.
• Savage, A.A. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1999). Evaluation of helical viscometry for assessing the functionality of molten Mozzarella cheese. Irish Journal of Agriculture and Food Research 38: 161.
• Savage, A.A. and Mullan, W.M.A. (2000). Evaluation of helical viscometry for assessing the functional properties of Mozzarella cheese. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 53, 57-62.
• Waterhouse, A., Arnott, D. P., Hughes, J., Laund, R. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1983). The lactoperoxidase system. Report of field extension study 1982/83. The West of Scotland Agricultural College, Auchincruive, Ayr, Scotland.
• Waterhouse, A., Hughes, J., Mullan, W., and Hynd, J. (1983). Activation of the lactoperoxidase system in calf milk replacers containing lactoperoxidase.  Animal Production.  36, 546-546.
• Walker, A.L., Mullan, W.M.A. and Muir, M.E. (1981). A survey of bulk starter production in the cheese industry. Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology, 34:78-84.
• Waterhouse, A. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1980). Addition of an active lactoperoxidase system to a milk substitute diet for calves. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 4:69.
• Waterhouse, A. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1980). Re-inclusion of an active lactoperoxidase system in a milk-substitute diet for calves. Animal Production, 30:458.
• Waterhouse, A., Mullan, W.M.A. and Extrand, B. (1982). The effects of giving milk replacers containing a lactoperoxidase system on calf performance and health. Animal Production, 34: 378.
• Waterhouse A. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1983). Activation of the lactoperoxidase system in calf milk replacers containing lactoperoxidase. Animal Production, 36: 546.
• Waterhouse A, and Mullan, W.M.A. (1985). The lactoperoxidase system in milk replacers for calves. Proceedings of symposium on Natural Antimicrobial Systems. University of Bath, England 10-13 September 1985. Part 2, pp85. International Dairy Federation, Brussels.
• Weatherup, W., Mullan, W.M.A. and Kormos, J. (1985). Effect of refrigerated storage of milk on the quality and yield of Cheddar cheese. Further observations. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 9:73.
• Weatherup, W., Mullan, W.M.A. and Kormos, J. (1988). Effect of storing milk at 3°C and 7°C on the quality and yield of Cheddar cheese. Dairy Industries International, 53 (12):16, 17, 25.
• Weatherup, W. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1994). Effects of the low temperature storage of milk on the quality and yield of cheese. In 'Cheese yield and factors affecting its control - Proceedings of IDF Seminar held in Cork, Ireland' pp85-94. International Dairy Federation, Brussels (Belgium).
• Zameni, E., Mullan, W.M.A. and Espie, W.E. (1985). Lactic streptococcal bacteriophage enumeration. Observations on the influence of host cell concentration on plaque formation. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 9:79.

SELECTED INTERNATIONAL DAIRY FEDERATION PUBLICATIONS PRODUCED BY IDF
GROUP F19

• Code of practice for preservation of raw milk by lactoperoxidase system. International Dairy Federation. Brussels (Belgium). FIL/IDF No. 234/1988.
• Significance of the indigenous antimicrobial agents of milk to the dairy industry. Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation. 264/1991, Brussels (Belgium).

INVITED PAPERS GIVEN AT CONFERENCES

• Mullan, W.M.A., Crawford, R.J.M. and Parry, J.E. (1981). Group N streptococcal phage lysins isolation, characterisation and potential for phage resistant mutant selection. Paper presented at the International Circle of Dairy Research Leader's meeting: Genetic Modification of Starter Cultures at the National Institute for Research in Dairying Reading, 1 3 April 1981.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1982). Studies on the activation of the LP system in milk replacers. Paper presented at a workshop on 'The lactoperoxidase system in calf feeding'. Swedish University of Agriculture, Upsalla, Sweden, September 1982.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1982). Studies of the possibilities for lactoperoxidase activity in vivo in calves, endogenous or activated. Paper presented at a workshop on 'The Lactoperoxidase system in calf feeding'. Swedish University of Agriculture. Upsalla, Sweden, September 1982.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1982). Studies on how to activate the LP system in milk replacers and studies of the LP activity in vivo in calves. Paper presented at Workshop on the lactoperoxidase system at Instituut Voor Veevoedingsonderzoek, Hoorn, Netherlands, September 1982.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1985). Practical problems of starter use in cheese manufacture. Paper presented at Marschall International Dairy Symposium, London, November 1985.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1986). Technological significance of the antimicrobial proteins of bovine milk.. Paper presented at "Workshop on antimicrobial systems", Moorepark Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland, April 1986.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1988). Significance of the antimicrobial proteins in milk to the dairy industry. Paper presented at International Dairy Federation "Cheese Week", Rennes, France, May 1988.
• Weatherup, W. and Mullan, W.M.A. (1990). Influence of raw materials and process control on cheese quality. Paper presented at Marschall International Dairy Symposium, London, November 1990.
• Mullan, W.M.A. (1993). Lactoperoxidase and other milk-derived systems. Paper presented at Unilever Research Colworth Laboratory, Sharnbrook Bedford England, 27-28 May 1993.
Mullan, Michael (2012). Bacteriophage and food fermentations. Phage assay and enumeration. In: L Laboratori Nazionali di Riferimento per Listeria monocytogenes e Camplpylobacter. Seminario. 10-12 December, 2012, Teramo, Italy. This can be downloaded from www.researchgate.net .

Prior to the early 1930's most cheese was made from undefined starter cultures; species and strain composition were generally unknown and if known initially would change with each subculture.

Dr Hugh Whitehead and his colleagues at the New Zealand Dairy Research Institute realised that if the dairy industry in that country was to produce close-textured cheese, free from taste and body defects and manufactured within a consistent time period that it would be necessary to use standardised starter cultures. They also realised that they needed to prevent problems arising from the growth of 'wild' lactic acid bacteria and spoilage organisms in the raw milk and introduced pasteurisation of milk for cheese manufacture.

The need for cheese grading

This article explores a model using simple chemical and physiochemical components that can be used to predict the quality of Cheddar cheese and whether a batch of cheese is suitable or extended maturation to yield a high value mature cheese. The model can be freely evaluated using an On Line calculator.

Assessment of cheese quality is essential in order to determine if the cheese conforms to legal standards, meets the requirements of the buyer and ultimately the customer and to grade the cheese for payment. A cheese may meet all legal and safety requirements but have appearance, taste, flavour and or texture defects that make it unpalatable or only suitable as an ingredient in e.g. sauces. Because cheeses like Cheddar require extended maturation in some cases for as long as 18 months or more to give extra mature high value cheese, assessment of quality through a grading scheme is used to exclude cheeses with defects. Storage is expensive and companies cannot afford to waste money storing inferior quality cheeses.

The traditional method of assessing cheese quality combines visual, organoleptic and physical assessment by a cheese grader and is called grading. Until relatively recently the suitability of cheese for end consumer use was judged almost entirely on flavour and texture assessments by commercial cheese graders. To assess the cheese, the cheese grader uses a cheese iron to extract a core of cheese. The grader visually examines the outside of the core, and breaks the core to examine a cross section of the core. The hardness or softness of the core and its resistance to deformation are also determined. The 'smell' of the sample core, immediately on withdrawal from the cheese and after working (squeezing a portion of the core into a malleable mass), also provides the grader with information on aroma. 

The author coring cheese at a cheese show

The author coring a cheese at a cheese show in Dublin.


These typically form the basis of traditional approaches to cheese grading.

Characteristics (Denomination of Protected Origin 1 July 1996) - Robiola di Roccaverano is a fresh cheese produced from ewes’ or goats’ milk or a mixture of ewes’, goats’ and cows’ milk. The quantity of cows’ milk used in manufacture must be less than 85%. Robioladi Roccaverano cheese is cylindrical with flat surfaces. The cylindrical shape has a diameter of 10-15 cm, an edge of 4-5 cm and a weight of 250-300 g. There is no rind and the dough is white or ivory-white without holes. The texture is soft and slightly firm. The odour is fine, delicate, and rarely pungent. The taste is mainly acid and fine.

Production area - The cheese is produced in 11 towns in the province of Asti and 9 towns in the province of Alessandria.

This section of the Dairy Science and Food Technology website provides an outline of how the commercial 'cheese yield problem' outlined earlier might be approached and how yield and cheese component retention can be analysed and presented. This is achieved using a unique on-line calculator that is shown in the cheese yield spreadsheet.

Data from 5 vats of commercial Cheddar production are summarised in the cheese yield spreadsheet. The data set are different to the problem given previously. The cheese and milk data were obtained from one day's production. The casein:fat ratio of milk in each vat has been calculated and for information casein as a percentage of protein has been presented.

The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on dairy products, raw meat, raw poultry , cooked meat and fruit and vegetables is discussed.

Dairy products

 MAP has the potential to increase the shelf life of a number of dairy products.  These include fat-filled milk powders, cheeses and fat spreads.  In general these products spoil due to the development of oxidative rancidity in the case of powders and or the growth of micro-organisms, particularly yeasts and moulds, in the case of cheese.

Whole milk powder is particularly susceptible to the development of off-flavours due to fat oxidation.  Commercially the air is removed under vacuum and replaced with N2 or N2/CO2 mixes and the powder is hermetically sealed in metal cans. 

Due to the spray drying process air tends to be absorbed inside the powder particles and will diffuse into the container over a period of 10 days or so.  This typically will raise the residual O2 content to 1%-5% or higher.  Because some markets require product with low levels of residual O2(<1%) some manufacturers re-pack the cans after 10 days storage.  Use of O2 scavenging may also be useful. 

The nature of polyphosphate

Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a linear, unbranched polymer of orthophosphate residues linked by phosphoanhydride bonds (Figure 1.1).  PolyP ranges in size from three to over one thousand orthophosphate residues (Kornberg et al., 1999).  PolyP is widespread in bacteria and yeasts and has been found in plant and animal cells (polyP is also formed by dehydration and condensation of phosphate at the elevated temperatures of benthic and volcanic vents (Kornberg et al., 1999).

Linear structure of polyphosphate
PolyP was first found in yeast cells by Liebermann (1888). Further work by Wiame (1947), Kornberg (1956) and others through the 1940s and 1950s established the role of polyP, or 'volutin' as it was then known in the accumulation of phosphate and in energy storage by microorganisms. PolyP was observed in many microorganisms as metachromatic particles and was historically used as a diagnostic tool for certain pathogens such as Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Robinson & Wood, 1986). PolyP, like other anions, shifts the absorption of basic dyes such as toluidine blue, to a shorter wavelength (630 to 530nm) therefore giving rise to a metachromatic effect. When viewed by electron microscopy intracellular polyP appears as dark, electron dense granules. The presence of polyP in cells may also be detected by other techniques such as 31P-NMR analysis (Glonek et al., 1971) and by fluorescence of 4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) (Allan & Miller, 1980).

This article provides students with an overview of why employers are increasingly attempting to recruit graduates with entrepreneurial skills. It also explores why economies within the European Union need more people with imagination and drive to think and act in an entrepreneurial manner to create exciting opportunities for themselves and others. Entrepreneurship is not something special that a few people are born with. Entrepreneurship is a way of thinking that can be nurtured in any environment, not just business start-ups but also in existing private and public organisations. Therefore, it is not surprising that schools and colleges are interested in producing more enterprise-savvy graduates; and governments are committed to equipping people with enterprise skills in all walks of life. This article outlines how important it is for everyone to cultivate his or her entrepreneurial spirit.

There are a range of formulae that can be used to assess the readability of written text.  While these all have limitations, judicious use of several ‘readability' predictors can improve the clarity of writing of articles, theses, reports and assignments.

The software used here, an online readability calculator, will return a number of indicators including the average words per sentence, Fog index, Flesch reading ease score, and Flesch-Kincaid grade level. These readability indicators may be of help in editing and developing your written work.

It is unclear how useful computer programmes are for analysing scientific writing since the language used tends to be complex. However, some studies have shown that the indicators derived using the software here do have value.

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