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This is the access page to the free molarity calculators designed by Dr Michael Mullan. It is not unusual for students and others to miscalculate the volumes of solutions or the weight of compounds required to produce solutions. The molarity calculators accessed here should enable students and others to check their calculations.

If you are submitting assignments, essays or theses then you are required to correctly reference any ideas, images, data, reference lists you have used which are not your own. This also includes data and information you have obtained from electronic sources including the Internet.

Failure to give credit to the work of others can result in you being accused of plagiarism which if proven could result in no marks being given for your work or suspension from your course or even expulsion from your College or university.

Dr Cecilia HegartyDr Cecilia Hegarty is a lecturer in Entrepreneurship and works at the Northern Ireland Centre for Entrepreneurship (NICENT). NICENT is a partnership between the University of Ulster, Queen's University Belfast and the College of Agriculture, Food and Rural Enterprise (CAFRE). NICENT is committed to leading the development of entrepreneurship education in higher education in Northern Ireland. NICENT was established in 2000, and funded by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) and Invest Northern Ireland. It is one of 13 Science Enterprise Centres across the UK.

 

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Introduction

There will be occasions when a food manufacturer wishes to use a different, but equivalent lethal thermal process. How does the processor calculate the equivalent process?

This article explains how to calculate an equivalent thermal or heat process at a higher or lower temperature and provides access to a free On Line calculator for checking your calculations.

Providing that the F value at Tref and the z value are known then the F value at the required temperature, T, can be calculated using equation 1.

Equation 1.  heq1 articles

 

Equation 1 has been derived from Stumbo (1973).

Why is the freezing curve of an ice cream or gelato mix important?

Freezing curves are useful in developing new ice cream and gelato products and predicting the hardness of the ice cream produced from particular mixes at designated temperatures, including the serving temperature. Curves can also be used to predict sensitivity to heat shock, storage stability and resistance of packaging materials to deformation during distribution and storage.

The infection of a growing bacterial culture with phage is initiated by the adsorption of the phage to the host cell. The specificity of adsorption of lactococcal phages and the location of phage receptor substances have been studied and has been reviewed (Lawrence et. al., 1976).

Characteristics (Denomination of Protected Origin 12 June 1996) - Grana Padano is a cylindrical cheese with a diameter of 35-40 cm, an edge of 18-25 cm and a weight of 24-40 kg. Ripening lasts at least 270 days. The crust is hard, regular with a dark beige colour. The dough is white or pale-yellow with very small and sparse holes. The texture is solid, granular and the odour aromatic with almond characteristics. The taste is very savoury and mainly salty.

What are starter concentrates?

Traditionally 'bulk starter' in liquid form was used to inoculate the milk used in the manufacture of cheese, yoghurt, buttermilk and other fermented products. Over the past 15-20 years, the use of starter cell concentrates designated as either Direct Vat Set (DVS) or Direct Vat Inoculation (DVI) cultures are increasing being used, particularly in small plants, to replace bulk starter in cheese manufacture.  DVI / DVS cultures for cheese manufacture normally contain defined blends of lactococci and Streptococcus thermophilus. These organisms respond different to salt and temperature and these differences, if not understood, can impact on cheese quality.

Note that the terms DVI and DVS are used interchangeably although particular culture suppliers will tend to use only one term.

In addition to these high activity cell concentrates, lower activity commercial cell concentrates have been used for many years to inoculate milk for bulk starter manufacture, and in the manufacture of 'long set products' that require extended incubation.

Milk is an excellent source of well balanced nutrients and also exhibits a range of biological activities that influence digestion, metabolic responses to absorbed nutrients, growth and development of specific organs, and resistance to disease. These biological activities are mainly due to the peptides and proteins in milk. However, some of the biological activity of milk protein components is latent, and is released only upon proteolytic action. Bioactive peptides are produced during digestion of milk in the gastrointestinal tract, and also during fermentation and food processing.

Bioactive peptides have been defined as specific protein fragments that have a positive impact on body functions or conditions and may ultimately influence health. Upon oral administration, bioactive peptides, may affect the major body systems—namely, the cardiovascular, digestive, immune and nervous systems. The beneficial health effects may be classified as antimicrobial, antioxidative, antithrombotic, antihypertensive, antimicrobial or immunomodulatory (FitzGerald and Meisel, 2003; Korhonen and Pihlanto, 2003a).

Conditions governing use of this website

It is a condition that those using this site only do so if they accept the following conditions and any specific conditions associated with the spreadsheets, Ebooks or subscription services.

I have included a range of calculators e.g. aids for determining yield, milk component retention in cheese manufacture, ice-cream mix composition and the F-value of thermal processes. Wizards to help students produce correctly cited references have also been included. These aids are included for the use of students and trainees and are not intended for commercial use or to replace support from lecturers and tutors.

It is a condition of using this website that you accept that you use all software and educational material at your own risk including any that you obtained after donation and download.

I accept no liability and cannot be held accountable for any losses/damages/problems/consequences arising from the use or interpretation of any material that I have provided for educational use including any errors made by me or others.

The general conditions concerning donation and use of spreadsheet and subscription services are given at https://www.dairyscience.info/index.php/technology/181-spreadsheets.html .

If you do not accept these, and the conditions below, please do not use this site.

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RESPONSIBILITY FOR VIEWS EXPRESSED ON THE DSFT WEBSITE

The views expressed are either mine or those of the other contributors. Note contributing authors, including those posting in the forum, are solely responsible for the content of their articles including all views and statements made. 

 Where I have listed URLs of other sites no guarantees are made that any of the links on these pages still work, or are appropriate for your intended use. Site URLs change and others sometimes use these previously appropriate links for purposes that may be offensive or illegal. It is not my intention to direct anyone to sites other than those that contain academically relevant 'food' related content. If you find a broken link or that a link has been changed please let me know and I will modify the link or remove the reference to that link on this site.

 

I am not medically qualified and this site is not intended to be a source of medical or nutritional advice for anyone. If you read material that you consider to have health or nutritional significance to you, please discuss any action that you are considering with a qualified medical practitioner.

 I am not responsible for the views and statements in articles written by site contributors other than me.

 USERS' CONDUCT ON THIS WEB SITE

While using this web site, you should not: post or transmit any unlawful, threatening, abusive, or objectionable information of any kind, including encouraging unlawful conduct ; post or exploit any information, software or other material obtained through this web site for commercial purposes (other than as expressly permitted by me and where I am the copyright holder); upload, post, publish, transmit, reproduce, or distribute, information, software or other material obtained through this site without my permission; or upload, post, publish, reproduce, transmit or distribute any element or part of the this web site since the web site is copyrighted to me.

ACCESS FOR USERS WHO ARE BLIND, HAVE IMPAIRED VISION OR HAVE DIFFICULTIES WITH PARTICULAR COLOURS

 I have tried to make this site as accessible as I can for people who are blind or have difficulty with particular colours. Most pages have been viewed using a text-based browser called Lynx and should meet the requirements of several software packages that translate text to speech. Any problems please Email me and tell me what is wrong. I will try to change the site coding to help you.

 

Dr Michael Mullan, FIFST
Dairy Science and Food Technology website

 

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