This article provides students with an overview of why employers are increasingly attempting to recruit graduates with entrepreneurial skills. It also explores why economies within the European Union need more people with imagination and drive to think and act in an entrepreneurial manner to create exciting opportunities for themselves and others. Entrepreneurship is not something special that a few people are born with. Entrepreneurship is a way of thinking that can be nurtured in any environment, not just business start-ups but also in existing private and public organisations. Therefore, it is not surprising that schools and colleges are interested in producing more enterprise-savvy graduates; and governments are committed to equipping people with enterprise skills in all walks of life. This article outlines how important it is for everyone to cultivate his or her entrepreneurial spirit.

This article explains how to convert numbers to scientific notation and back again to standard format. It also contains two calculators that will enable calculations to be checked and that provide feedback on common data entry input errors.  

How do you convert numbers to scientific notation?

In mathematics, science and engineering students frequent have to work with very small, e.g. 0.000005, and very large, e.g. 3200000000 numbers. For example, students in microbiology are often required to write the number of colony forming units (CFU)/mL or gram in scientific notation. To avoid dealing with these large and small numbers mathematicians, scientists and engineers have developed a particular way of expressing numbers; this is called scientific notation.

This section is aimed at product development technologists who need to know how to design ice cream or gelato mixes. It should also be of interest to small scale ice cream or gelato manufacturers who want to replace commercial ice cream mixes (bought in mixes) or additives by sourcing their own ingredients and additives. The article provides a basic introduction to the scientific principles involved in producing ice cream or gelato recipes using key product components e.g. fat, solids-not-fat (SNF).

Whole milk powders with a range of fat concentrations are available commercially. The dairy technologist may be required to standardise raw milk to a particular fat concentration to enable the production of powder to a specified fat concentration to be produced.

A calculator for determining the fat concentration required in the raw milk to produce a powder of a specified fat concentration
can be accessed here.

The LP system can be used to prevent bacterial deterioration of milk when refrigeration is not available.  It can also be used to prolong the safe storage life of refrigerated milk.  Arguably the LP-system, immunoglobulins and lactoferrin have potential to be of value in neonate nutrition.  The remaining section largely concerns the exploitation of the LP-system in the protection of neonates.

Manufacture of milk powders containing a functional LP system

That milk provides neonates with nutrients and  various protective antimicrobial factors has been discussed previously.  Because many of these factors are denatured by the heat treatments used in milk replacer manufacture commercial products, unless specially produced, generally do not contain antimicrobial proteins in active form.

This article discusses the background of the change in classification of the lactic streptococci to the genus Lactococcus.

The lactic group of the genus Streptococcus originally included the species Str. lactis and Str. cremoris and a subspecies of Str. lactis, Str. lactis subsp. diacetylactis (Deibel and Seeley, 1974). However, even in the 1970s workers were suggesting that Str. lactis strains might be variants of Str. diacetylactis that were unable to ferment citric acid, since citrate permease – negative strains of Str. diacetylactis had been described (Lawrence, Thomas and Terzaghi, 1976).

Bacteria in this group were designated as the lactic streptococci. The designation 'lactic' was used by Sherman (1937) for mainly historical reasons, including the use of the term by Lister (1878) to describe a bacterium that we now know as Lc. lactis subsp. lactis.

 Technologists producing acidic foods such as pickles and sauces often find it difficult to get information on the processing conditions required to obtain commercial sterility or how to calculate the processing time at a higher temperature. Following the experience of working with processors experiencing technical issues, including spoilage problems and difficulties in exporting products, I have produced a concise Ebook (Thermal processing of acid fruit and vegetable products. Significant microorganisms, recommended processing time / temperatures, and public health significance of spoilage) that may be helpful. Currently the Ebook (figure 1):

lee-williamsLee Williams owns and operates Valenti’s Gelato-Artisan, a Company dedicated to promoting Artisan Ice Cream and Gelato making throughout the UK. He has over 35 years’ experience in the Ice Cream Industry. Lee began his career in a family business, a second generation of Ice Cream makers in SW England. During this time he worked in various locations including Southern Africa, creating a global perspective to his service. More recently he has developed strong working partnerships with European equipment manufacturers and Italian flavour houses. Valenti’s product portfolio includes all types of Artisan Ice Cream making equipment, gelato shop with parlour design and ingredients, together with training, mix formulation and technical support, available throughout the UK and Ireland.

 Valenti’s can provide specialist training at their Academy based in Cornwall the home of Ice Cream making and also on-site training programmes at the clients own premises.

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