This section contains a range of calculators and models. These include calculators for determining the theoretical yields of Cheddar cheese (Van Slyke), the yield of Cottage cheese, the volumes of skim and whole milk required to standardise milk to a required fat content, the predicted grade value of Cheddar cheese, casein retention, fat retention, casein to fat ratio, protein to fat ratio, the quantities of ingredients required for a balanced ice cream mix, the ideal MSNF value for ice cream, MSNF in unwashed butter, MSNF in cream and the energy value of foods. Software for calculating the F value of thermal processes has also  been provided. This software can be used to teach the principles of thermal processing or to check the adequacy of, for example, a canning process. It is easy to use and applicable to a broad range of thermal processes.

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This page provides access to an interactive spreadsheet in which data for the chemical composition of milk and cheese and actual yields can be recorded. The software will then calculate theoretical yield, process efficiency, key compositional criteria and provide a basic statistical analysis of the results. Real data have been provided and these can be replaced with test data to use the spreadsheet.

This software could be used with the cheese yield problem provided along with the overview of how the problem might be investigated to teach the principles of process control in cheese manufacture.


Go to interactive spreadsheet.

Whole milk powders with a range of fat concentrations are available commercially. The dairy technologist may be required to standardise raw milk to a particular fat concentration to enable the production of powder to a specified fat concentration to be produced.

A calculator for determining the fat concentration required in the raw milk to produce a powder of a specified fat concentration
can be accessed here.

This is the access page to the free molarity calculators designed by Dr Michael Mullan. It is not unusual for students and others to miscalculate the volumes of solutions or the weight of compounds required to produce solutions. The molarity calculators accessed here should enable students and others to check their calculations.

The calculator below is based on a model developed by Giles and Lawrence (1973) to predict the grade value of Cheddar cheese. Instructions on how to use the calculator are given below. Note that the pH and other values should be obtained from 24-hour old cheese.

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