Following E-mail requests to provide a list of refereed citations or references to quality scientific literature covering definitions, prebiotics and synbiotics, the classification, isolation, enumeration of probiotic microorganisms; clinical trials including their effect on human fertility and reproductive health, gut development and function, topical gut infections e.g. Clostridium difficile; health of infants, people with AIDS, and the elderly; and distant site infection a ‘downloadable’ list has been prepared.

The list of references is in rich text format (RTF) and can be viewed and edited using most word processing software on PCs using Microsoft, Mac and Linux operating systems.

The references have been prepared in a Harvard-style format e.g.
Antonio, M.A., Rabe, L.K. and Hillier, S.L. (2005). Colonization of the rectum by Lactobacillus species and decreased risk of bacterial vaginosis. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 192(3):394-8.

The reference list at the 18 January 2011 is at version 1.4 and when printed on to A4 paper will give 13 pages of single spaced citations, depending on how your word processing programme is configured, containing some 143 individual references. The updated reference list cites recent research on the  possible impact of probiotics on behaviour and the concept of a psychobiotic "a live organism that, when ingested in adequate amounts, produces a health benefit in patients suffering from psychiatric illness."

Who will benefit from the reference list?

The list should be of interest to students writing essays on probiotics, undergraduate and postgraduate students commencing research on probiotics, staff in food companies working on the development and/or marketing of probiotics, journalists, food writers, parents and the general public wanting to access current developments e.g. what well publicised probiotic was found to potentially aggravate allergic reactions in mice and what are the implications for babies?

Making a contribution to the development and operating costs of the Dairy Science and Food Technology website

The list can be downloaded after making a donation of £5.99 towards site hosting, maintenance and development using PayPal by clicking the payment button below.

Once you have paid you will shortly receive an Email giving you a download URL.  You will be able to download the references for 7 days from your payment date; you can make up to 4-downloads over this time.

Legal and other information

While the list of references has been carefully checked there may still be some minor formatting errors. If you cannot find a particular reference because the details provided contain an error or errors then, Email the details to me at including ‘Reference list errors’ in the title and I will usually respond within 3 working days except during holiday periods. Note you will still have to obtain the individual references. These can be obtained from libraries and or the Internet. If you are unhappy with the list of references I will return your donation minus PayPal processing fees.


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