Note this article has been updated to reflect the published consensus of researchers and clinicians at the conference on MAP in the US in 2017 that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a human pathogen (Kuenstner et al, 2017).
The use of a high temperature short time heat treatment (HTST) of 72°C for 15 seconds to destroy pathogenic bacteria in milk, reduce the number of spoilage organisms and increase shelf life is well established (Cerf and Condron, 2006; Codex Alimentarius (2004); Juffs and Deeth, 2007).
Learn more about heat treatment and survival of MAP
Model probability of detecting a pathogen in food.
Despite the global use of HACCP systems and a legal requirement for the use of HACCP in many jurisdictions' food poisoning remains an endemic problem and large numbers of people continue to be hospitalised, die and as a result companies either face substantial legal costs and / or in many cases are forced to cease trading.
While the use of HACCP systems significantly reduces the need for microbiological end point testing of foods, sampling schemes and microbial analysis have important roles in system validation and quality assurance.
This raises an issue concerning the adequacy of sampling schemes and microbial analysis in commercial food manufacture.
Further information on the mathematics of microbial sampling
Growth and acid production by starter cultures may be inhibited by bacterial viruses, bacteriophages, or added substances including antibiotics, sterilant and detergent residues, or free fatty acids produced by or as a result of the growth of microorganisms, and natural often called indigenous antimicrobial proteins.
More about starter-inhibitors
This article discusses the origins and role of starters in dairy fermentations, the ecology of starter bacteria, the classification of starter bacteria, the types of starter culture used and concludes with some observations on artisanal cultures. The author has provided a broader perspective on the use of starter cultures in food fermentations in the Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology. The chapter can be downloaded from Elsevier Ltd. This article should be read in conjunction with the article discussing the major functions of starters in dairy fermentations and the relative importance and effectiveness of the antimicrobial agents produced by starters.
More about the microbiology of starters
The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on dairy products, raw meat, raw poultry , cooked meat and fruit and vegetables is discussed.
MAP has the potential to increase the shelf life of a number of dairy products. These include fat-filled milk powders, cheeses and fat spreads. In general these products spoil due to the development of oxidative rancidity in the case of powders and or the growth of micro-organisms, particularly yeasts and moulds, in the case of cheese.
Whole milk powder is particularly susceptible to the development of off-flavours due to fat oxidation. Commercially the air is removed under vacuum and replaced with N2 or N2/CO2 mixes and the powder is hermetically sealed in metal cans.
Find out more about modified atmosphere packaging