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Importance of experimental replication
Sufficient replication is required in scientific experiments. Understanding the statistical term, degrees of freedom, can be helpful in ensuring sufficient replication.
The minimum number of degrees of freedom required for an experimental design to be considered adequate is usually understood to be 12 (Anonymous, 2012). However, this should be increased if there is significant variation in the variables measured (low precision). For most biological experiments the minimum residual degrees of freedom required is considered to be 15.
Anonymous (2012). Design and analysis of efficacy evaluation trials. EPPO Bull. 42:367–381.
How to cite this article
Mullan, W.M.A. (2021) [On-line] Available from: Accessed: