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Calculator for determining the lethality (F, B* values) and chemical changes (C* value, formation of: HMF, Lactulose, Furosine, and destruction of thiamine) in heated milk integrated using the trapezoid and Simpson's rules
The calculator calculates the concentration of HMF, lactulose and furosine in heated milks (whole, semi-skim and skimmed milk) using pasted temperature / time inputs.
It also calculates the F0, B* and C* values and the destruction of thiamine.
The values are integrated using the industry standard method, the trapezoid rule, and compared with a more accurate method of numerical integration, Simpson's 1/3 and 3/8 rules.
Cite this article
Mullan, W.M.A. (2018) [On-line] Available from: Accessed: