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Calculator for determining the lethality (F, B* values) and chemical changes (C* value, formation of: HMF, Lactulose, Furosine, and destruction of thiamine) in heated milk integrated using the trapezoid and Simpson's rules


The calculator calculates the concentration of HMF, lactulose and furosine in heated milks (whole, semi-skim and skimmed milk) using pasted temperature / time inputs.

It also calculates the F0, B* and C* values and the destruction of thiamine.

The values are integrated using the industry standard method, the trapezoid rule, and compared with a more accurate method of numerical integration, Simpson's 1/3 and 3/8 rules.

To use, select the fat content of the milk you want to use (milk type). This will then provide the particular constants for the calculations. If you know what you are doing you can make changes to the default values (published values) for these variables. Next select time units, seconds for UHT processing. Thousands of individual time and temperature values can be pasted. Once added, press the generate table command and then the calculate button. The outputs reflect the differences in numerical integration undertaken using the trapezoid and Simpson's rules.

A similar Excel spreadsheet can be downloaded at https://www.dairyscience.info/index.php/thermal-processing/334-download-spreadsheets.html .

How to

Cite this article

Mullan, W.M.A. (2018) [On-line] Available from: Accessed: